Life Extension Magazine®

Reap Benefits of Calorie Restriction without Chronic Hunger

Research conducted over the last 75 years in mammals confirms that consuming fewer calories induces extraordinary anti-aging effects, from radically extended life span to reduced disease incidence and improved blood markers of health. A recently completed 20-year primate study provides the most compelling evidence to date that even modest caloric restriction may bring about these benefits to humans. In this issue, we offer practical ways to trigger the same physiological mechanisms as caloric restriction—without having to endure drastic dietary deprivation.

Scientifically reviewed by Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, in August 2023. Written by: William Faloon.

William Faloon 
William Faloon

The most significant anti-aging discovery in history was made in 1935. In that year, rats fed a calorie restricted diet achieved radically-extended mean and maximum life spans, along with a delayed onset of age-related diseases.1

Since this finding was published 75 years ago, dozens of experiments in mammals have validated that undernutrition without malnutrition induces profound anti-aging effects.2-10 Not only do calorie restricted animals live much longer, but they remain far healthier than normally-fed controls.

When a group of humans consumed a similar calorie restricted diet, their conventional blood markers of aging (excess glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL) plummeted to much lower levels.11,12

In the most significant finding to date, two groups of Rhesus monkeys were studied for twenty years. The group placed on a moderately restricted diet reduced their incidence of age-related disease by a factor of three! Cancers and cardiovascular disease were less than half in the moderate calorie restricted group compared to controls. None of the moderate calorie restricted group developed diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, despite a usually high prevalence in these monkeys. An interesting finding showed that moderate calorie reduction preserved brain volume in certain regions.13 Normal aging is accompanied by brain shrinkage as neurons are lost.

Reap Benefits of Calorie Restriction without Chronic Hunger

This issue of Life Extension® is dedicated to providing practical options to attain many of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Our objective is to help induce the favorable changes in our members’ bodies that may be responsible for the remarkable age-delaying and disease-protecting effects of reduced calorie intake.

A Time to Make Personal Commitments

After reading this article, I hope each of you will reduce some of the excess calories you ingest each day. I can almost promise that if you do it right, you’ll never miss these surplus age-accelerating sugars and fats. Even if you are unable to cut a single calorie, we are going to show how you can benefit nonetheless.

A study of those making New Year’s resolutions showed that 46% are compliant after six months.14 During this time of year, when people strive for a healthier and longer life, I believe most of you will succeed in cutting back at least some excess food intake.

We All Eat Too Much

Calorie-dense toxic foods are abundant, cheap and heavily advertised. It is no wonder that so many children and adults eat far more than what their bodies require.

Excess calorie intake causes our bloodstream to be chronically ‘bloated’ with glucose, insulin, cholesterol, fat, homocysteine, and other pro-inflammatory inducers. Persistent bloodstream overload predisposes us to cancer, stroke, heart attack, senility, painful inflammation and virtually every other age-related ailment.15-27

Consuming excess calories shortens our average life span by facilitating the development of age-related diseases that preclude us from attaining healthy longevity.

Overconsumption of calories has another insidious effect. Many scientists believe that our life span is largely controlled by genes that program our bodies to function in a youthful-healthy state. When we consume excess calories, we cause some of these genes to turn against us and contribute to accelerated aging and death.

If we reduce the amount and/or effects of ingested calories, the result is a more favorable gene expression profile. Such a positive effect helps us to live longer, healthier lives.

Controlling the impact of ingested calories becomes an essential component of a science-based longevity program, as excess calorie exposure reduces life span by increasing degenerative disease risk and accelerating aging.

So now that you understand that most of us are eating too much, let’s talk about practical approaches to doing something about it.

Reduce the Number of Calories You Absorb

Reduce the Number of Calories You Absorb

Foods eaten must first be broken down by digestive enzymes before they are absorbed into our bloodstream. Dietary fats, for instance, are broken down by lipase enzymes in the stomach and small intestines. Taking 120 mg of the lipase-inhibiting drug orlistat before meals reduces dietary fat absorption by 30%.28

Green and black tea polyphenols also inhibit lipase, thus enabling one to eat more calories without absorbing all of the fats.29,30 In fact, when theaflavins from black tea were administered to rats, there was an immediate suppression of post-meal (postprandial) triglyceride elevation in the blood. The scientists attributed these results to the “inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity.”30

You might think that a drug like orlistat that reduces fat absorption by 30% would induce significant weight loss. The harsh reality is that study subjects must reduce their dietary fat intake and take orlistat to lose just 20.5 pounds in one year. These data reveal the frightening degree to which most of us overeat.31 In other words, even when dietary fat absorption is reduced by 30%, we still take in too many fat calories.

Studies show that in response to consumption of green or black tea polyphenols (or orlistat), substantial reductions in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and other vascular risk factors occur.32-41 These same changes happen when one reduces calorie intake,11,12 suggesting that those who continue to eat too much should take steps to block digestive enzymes that enable excess calories to be absorbed.

Most Western diets contain too many refined carbohydrates that add to the calorie burden. Ingested carbohydrates are broken down for absorption by the enzymes sucrase, amylase, and glucosidase. One may obtain some of the effects of following a “low-carb” diet by taking 50-100 mg of a drug called acarbose (glucosidase inhibitor) before each meal.42,43

Nutrients that may slow carbohydrate absorption include white kidney bean (amylase inhibitor),44-47 InSea™ (containing amylase and glucosidase inhibitors from special seaweeds),48-51 Irvingia (amylase inhibitor)52-55 and L-arabinose (sucrase inhibitor).56 These carbohydrate-blunting nutrients are all contained in the new Optimized Irvingia formula.

Clinical studies confirm significant reductions in glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in response to taking acarbose alone.57-59 These effects also occur when one restricts their calorie intake. Clinical studies show dramatic reductions in heart attack rate in response to acarbose.59 This same kind of vascular disease risk reduction has been observed in experimental studies where food intake is restricted.60-62 What this indicates is that one may obtain some of the benefits of following a calorie restricted diet by inhibiting lipase, amylase, glucosidase, and sucrase enzymes.

Consuming soluble dietary fibers before meals slows the absorption of carbohydrates, thus blunting the postprandial insulin spike.63-66 This is another method of impeding calorie absorption and helping to mimic the effects of calorie restriction.

Improve Your Gene Expression

In response to consuming fewer calories, gene expression favoring youthful vigor is improved. Overeating, on the other hand, induces pathologic gene expression favoring the onset of diseases and accelerated aging.72,73

Improve Your Gene Expression

Until recently, the only way of achieving a favorable gene expression profile was through caloric restriction. Back in the late 1990s, research funded by the Life Extension Foundation® enabled scientists to compare the effects of various compounds (such as resveratrol) to the gene expression changes that occur during calorie restriction.

These experiments have been used to identify nutrients that mimic many of the beneficial gene expression changes observed during calorie restriction. As you will read in this month’s issue, many of the nutrients Life Extension® members have been taking for decades, and a few new ones, favorably influence gene expression changes that occur during calorie restriction.

Once scientists gain total control over the expression of the genes that affect longevity, mankind may achieve biological immortality.Until that time arrives, it is comforting to know that we can now exert at least some control over the expression of genes that influence our health and longevity.

With the discovery of novel plant extracts that mimic some of the gene expression changes observed in response to calorie restriction, one may enjoy many of the longevity benefits of undereating by taking the proper supplements daily.

Moderate Calorie Restriction—It’s Not as Difficult as You Think!

For too many people, copious food intake has become an addictive drug. I am so gratified that the nutrient Irvingia and the drug metformin keep my appetite under control and enable me to eat a lot less than I used to. There are other nutrients and drugs that effectively curb appetite, but these are all I have needed.

I don’t miss gorging on surplus calories. One reason is my regular review of scientific articles that discuss reasons why people develop lethal diseases. For many medical conditions, overeating (described as “excess energy intake”) is an independent risk factor for developing anything from cancer, to vascular disease, to arthritis, and even to senility.74-79

I regularly speak with individuals who practice what many would say is extreme calorie restriction. The media views these individuals as being so unique that they have been favorably featured on CBS News’ 60 Minutes, the Oprah Winfrey Show, and in Newsweek magazine.

When I asked two of the most famous calorie restrictors how many calories they consume a day, Paul McGlothin told me he eats around 1,900, while Meredith Averill’s intake is around 1,600 daily. Based on these numbers, I did not think Paul or Meredith are overly depriving themselves. People who go on crash diets, sometimes consuming fewer than 1,000 calories a day, are absolutely miserable, and rapidly regain the weight they lost. Paul and Meredith, on the other hand, say they are activating their “happiness biochemistry” and would never consider eating more food that would compromise their mental state of well being and physical state of health.

Combating Carbohydrate Overload

Older people are more likely to suffer from impaired glucose tolerance, meaning their bodies are unable to properly utilize the sugars they ingest. This condition often manifests clinically as unwanted weight gain, metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes.67,68

Combating Carbohydrate Overload

Though people try to adopt healthier eating patterns, their aging bodies let them down by losing cellular sensitivity to insulin. The result is that even when carbohydrate intake is limited, too much tissue-damaging glucose remains in the blood and then converts to excess body fat.

Other than those who aggressively practice calorie restriction, most aging people lack the metabolic capacity to process the carbohydrate calories they ingest each day. Fortunately, there are practical solutions to combating the lethal effects of carbohydrate overload.

We know that by interfering with the activity of certain carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, blood glucose levels plummet, along with vascular risk factors such as triglycerides and C-reactive protein.

The American diet is chronically overloaded with carbohydrates that play a role in virtually every age-related disease. Many people need to inhibit the activity of all three of the following carbohydrate digestive enzymes to regain glycemic control:

  1. Amylase
  2. Glucosidase
  3. Sucrase

Fortunately, a low-cost drug called acarbose effectively inhibits glucosidase.42,43 A patented nutrient compound called InSea™ inhibits amylase and glucosidase,48-51 white kidney bean extract44-47 and Irvingia suppress amylase,52-55 while a new patented ingredient containing L-arabinose suppresses sucrase.56 These carbohydrate enzyme inhibiting nutrients are available in the new Optimized Irvingia formula. Acarbose is available as a prescription drug. Those who want to be even more aggressive in reducing excess glucose and insulin levels should ask their doctor to prescribe metformin.69-71 This drug not only acts as an insulin sensitizer, but functions via additional mechanisms to reduce blood glucose loads. I personally take 850 mg of metformin two to three times a day, though most people take only 250-500 mg three times a day (before meals). Metformin is available as a very low-cost generic drug.

Your objective in combating carbohydrate overload is to drive fasting glucose levels below 86 mg/dL of blood. I suggest that you have your blood tested within two months of initiating a comprehensive program to make sure the nutrients, drugs, and/or lifestyle changes are working for you.

At the beginning of this article I described the Rhesus monkey study that utilized only modest calorie restriction to achieve remarkable longevity benefits. From everything we know today, it would appear that many of you could migrate towards a routine of at least modest calorie reduction and feel better doing so.

So much of our appetite craving is psychological. I was at a business dinner a while back and ordered an 8-ounce filet mignon. When I finished, I thought that I should have ordered a larger portion. Several nights later, I ordered a 12-ounce size at the same restaurant and felt uncomfortably full. This made me realize how we “think” we need large portions of food to be satiated, when we really don’t. (I rarely eat beef by the way, usually only small portions a few times a month.)

It is hard for me to dine with regular people and not be appalled by the enormous amount of calories they ingest at a single meal. I know I feel better at the meal’s conclusion, while these individuals are bloated from gorging themselves with so many excess calories.

Once one accepts the fact that surplus food ingestion is poison to the body, it’s a lot easier to practice at least a moderate degree of caloric cutback.

Calorie Restriction without Hunger!

In a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the effects of caloric restriction were measured in a group of overweight adults over a six-month period.80

The findings showed that in response to reduced food intake, fasting insulin levels plummeted. Reducing excess insulin is important because “insulin overload” increases the risk of heart disease, cancer, blindness, stroke, Alzheimer’s, and other age-related diseases.81-84

The most exciting finding of the JAMA study was the amount of weight lost in the groups that restricted their calorie intake. The moderate caloric-restriction group experienced a 24% reduction in body fat mass, while the very low-calorie group achieved a 32% reduction in fat mass.80 You may wonder if you can replicate these findings, since hunger is the factor that precludes most people from staying on a low-calorie diet.

Fortunately, a plant extract discovered in Europe called pinolenic acid has been shown to suppress appetite without causing any stimulatory effect. This plant extract attacks the underlying mechanisms involved in hunger so effectively that study participants reduced their food intake by 36%.85

Pinolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from pine nuts. It stimulates the secretion of the hunger suppressing hormones cholecystokinin (CCK)86 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The results from human clinical studies using pinolenic acid reveal a reduced “desire to eat” along with early satiety.85

Those seeking to curb their appetite to reduce daily calorie intake should take three capsules of a pinolenic acid-containing supplement called Natural Appetite Control before most meals.

Practical Options to Emulate Calorie Restriction

Practical Options to Emulate Calorie Restriction

The scientific data solidly document that surplus calorie intake shortens your life span.87,88 Everyone responds differently when reducing food intake, but most people can at least modestly decrease the number of calories they consume each day.

Most individuals, however, will still eat more than they should. Fortunately, there are multiple ways to inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes, and thus spare most of the body from the lethal effects of excess calorie absorption. An aggressive three-month plan to reduce the number of absorbed calories involves taking the following nutrients and drugs before most meals:

  • Orlistat 120 mg (Inhibits lipase enzyme*28,31,35,40,41)
  • Acarbose 50-100 mg (Inhibits alpha-glucosidase enzyme42,43,57,59)
  • Optimized Irvingia 2 caps (Inhibits amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and sucrase enzymes, functions by additional mechanisms to facilitate calorie reduction29,44,48,52)
  • Black tea theaflavins 300-350 mg (Also inhibit lipase, but not as potently as orlistat30)

For some individuals, drugs like orlistat that inhibit lipase will cause gastrointestinal discomfort after eating too much. One objective of suggesting a 90-day trial using this drug is to forcibly educate you about healthier lifelong dietary patterns. For example, if you continue to consume excess fat calories and take orlistat, the result will be lots of lipid-laden feces in the toilet after a bowel movement. Understanding that this fat appearing in your toilet was destined to be absorbed into your bloodstream (which could shorten your life span) may motivate you to eat less. Likewise, digestive discomfort associated with excess carbohydrate intake in the presence of alpha-glucosidase, amylase, and sucrase inhibitors may entice you to reduce intake of dangerous simple carbohydrates. In case you have not figured this out yet, a side benefit to doing all this is a loss of surplus body fat.

Lethal Business and Family Rituals

Many of you were alive when the Surgeon General proclaimed the lethal effects of cigarette smoking in 1964. I recall smokers back then saying that they “enjoyed” their cigarettes too much to ever quit. Most of these individuals did eventually quit, after perishing from agonizing smoking-induced illnesses.

Lethal Business and Family Rituals

Americans today ingest oversized breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks as substitutes for tobacco and other addictive substances, sometimes as business or family rituals. To cure drug addiction, one important step is to remove other drug addicts from one’s environment. With food addiction, this is often impossible as business associates and family members provide constant temptations to help destroy your health and longevity by overeating.

I tell those who want to discuss a business matter with me over a meal that I don’t hold discussions over a meal or in the presence of food, unless it happens to be at a regularly scheduled mealtime for me.

I do not hesitate to accuse well wishing individuals that they are seeking to shorten my life span by inviting me to consume food I would not normally eat.

I realize that many of you may find it difficult to practice moderate calorie restriction. That is why we provide you the option of blocking the absorption of surplus calories by inhibiting digestive enzymes AND reducing the lethal gene expression changes caused by overeating, using nutrients that have been shown to mimic some of the gene expression effects of calorie restriction.

To mimic some of the favorable gene expression changes that occur in response to calorie restriction, a new nutrient formula called Calorie Restriction Mimetic Formula has been developed that consists of the following nutrients in the daily dose:

Black tea extract (Camellia sinensis)

300 mg


150 mg


3 mg


250 mg

Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds

50 mg

These and a number of other nutrients that health-conscious people already take, such as high dose vitamin D3 and fish oil, have been shown to favorably alter gene expression.89-101

We Live in an Exciting Era!

Scientists continue to validate the health benefits of nutrients that Life Extension members supplement with every day. Only recently, however, have these favorable effects been linked to the ability of these nutrients to mimic gene expression changes that occur in response to calorie restriction.72, 101-105

An explosive volume of newly published research indicates that aging humans can exert tremendous degrees of control as to whether they maintain youthful or senescent gene expression patterns in their cellular DNA.106-108

We Live in an Exciting Era!

Some youthful gene expression can be maintained by reducing intake of calories to a level 20-40% lower than is typical, while still obtaining all the necessary nutrients and vitamins.13,109-113 The most recent study indicates even a modest calorie restricted diet produces huge reductions in degenerative disease in monkeys.13

Those who are unable to sufficiently cut their food intake can still inhibit the absorption of ingested calories by taking compounds (such as orlistat, acarbose, and/or the new Optimized Irvingia formula) that block digestive enzyme activity.

Finally, and most exciting of all, there are nutrients (such as pterostilbene and resveratrol) that have been shown to mimic many of the favorable effects induced by calorie restriction.102-104,114-116 These low-cost nutrients provide humans with an unprecedented power to determine whether their cellular DNA expresses youth-promoting or senescent-inducing genes. Humans have never enjoyed so much control over the rate that they age!

Advanced Nutritional Formulas at the Year’s Lowest Prices

For more than two decades, Life Extension members have taken advantage of the annual Super Sale to acquire their favorite nutrient formulations.

Life Extension upgrades its formulas almost every year to provide more effective health-sustaining nutrients. In the last few months, we introduced a new form of ubiquinol CoQ10 that is significantly better absorbed into the cell’s mitochondria, standardized apigenin to maintain healthy cell division, and a novel plant compound that protects against persistent inflammatory joint conditions.

In this month’s issue, you’ll learn about nutrients that help arouse youthful gene expression changes, along with a new carbohydrate blocker (sucrase) that diminishes the amount of unwanted glucose absorbed into your bloodstream.

Every time you purchase a Life Extension® product, you contribute to research aimed at radically extending the healthy human lifespan. Last year, the Life Extension Foundation funded a record number of scientific projects.

During the traditional winter Super Sale, all Life Extension formulas are discounted so that members can obtain up-to-date versions at the lowest prices of the year.

For longer life,

For Longer Life

William Faloon


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