Life Extension Magazine®

Reversing Brain Decay

Maturing individuals’ risk of developing Alzheimer’s increases exponentially, with prevalence reaching a staggering 25-30% between ages 80-85. Explosive findings presented at a 2011 Alzheimer’s Conference in Paris reveal that Alzheimer’s associated changes in brain tissue occur far earlier than previously thought. Life Extension® members already reduce senility risk with nutrients they take. Now a new highly absorbable form of magnesium has been shown to blunt brain degeneration by protecting the integrity of brain synapses and increasing synaptic density.

Scientifically reviewed by Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, in May 2022. Written by: William Faloon.

William Faloon
William Faloon
Reversing Brain Decay

Some facts are so terrifying that people pretend they are not real.

A recent survey found Alzheimer's is the second most feared disease...cancer ranked number one.1

Yet most cancers are curable, while Alzheimer's insidiously kills every one of its victims.

Alzheimer's incidence increases exponentially as humans age. If we make it to 80-85 years, Alzheimer's prevalence rises to a startling 25%-30%.2,3

It is unsettling to think that our odds of developing Alzheimer's are so high, but there is reason for optimism. Scientists have identified factors that increase Alzheimer's risk. This enables enlightened individuals to neutralize underlying causes of Alzheimer's and spare themselves the frightening statistical probabilities faced by the general population.

Life Extension® members do a lot to reduce senility risk, such as suppressing destructive inflammatory reactions in the brain (with nutrients like curcumin),4-7 while ingesting structural components required by brain cell membranes (such as DHA from fish oil).8-11

In a remarkable discovery, the loss of synapses has been shown to occur early in the process of Alzheimer's and may trigger onset of the disease.12

Fortunately, a highly absorbable form of magnesium not only protects the integrity of delicate brain synapses, but also increases synaptic density, thus helping to reverse the structural loss of this critical brain component.13

What Is a "Synapse?"

Our brain consists of about 100 billion cells called neurons. In order for neurons to communicate in a way that enables you to exist, they must connect to one another.

A synapse is the connection that allows information to pass from one neuron to the next. Your synapses control electrical impulses and the release of neurotransmitters between neurons. Brain synapses serve as a junction that enables neurons to pass signals in a synchronized/organized pattern.

Synapses, as you might imagine, are essential to neuronal function. Not only are synapses crucial to short-term memory in the young, but their structural integrity is imperative in aging individuals seeking to stave off cognitive impairment and senility.

What Happens When Our Synapses Degrade?


Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the pathological accumulation of non-functioning plaque in neurons and loss of normal neurotransmitter flow between neurons.

Before neurons encounter this severe damage, scientists have found a marked decline in synaptic density. This loss of synaptic density causes a decline in neuronal connectivity that strongly correlates to the cognitive impairment observed in Alzheimer's disease.14-17

In fact, a consistent finding in the brains of Alzheimer's victims is a significant loss of synaptic contacts. This led one group of researchers to conclude:

"...synapse loss is an early event in the disease process and suggests that mild cognitive impairment may be a transitional stage between early Alzheimer's disease and no cognitive impairment, with synaptic loss a structural correlate involved in cognitive decline."18

Another group of scientists looked at synaptic decay and concluded that it "may represent an early and subtle alteration able to trigger the development of senile plaques and neurodegenerative events."19

There are about 5 million Americans suffering from Alzheimer's today. That number will spike upward to 8.6 million by the year 2030 and to an astounding 16 million by 2050.20 America does not have the economic or human resources to care for this many Alzheimer's victims.

A compelling need exists for an intervention that prevents the downward cascade of neuro-degeneration that will manifest as Alzheimer's in 25%-30% of aged individuals.21

Magnesium Protects and Restores Synaptic Density

In a series of unprecedented laboratory experiments, a highly absorbable form of magnesium was shown to not only increase magnesium blood levels, but it also substantially increases magnesium brain concentrations.13

In response to this elevation in cerebral magnesium, there were significant increases in synaptic density and corresponding improvements in synaptic functioning and neuronal signaling.13

These improvements in synaptic structure and function translated into improvements in measurements of cognitive function.

Restoration of Short- and Long-term Memory

Using this highly absorbable magnesium (magnesium-L-threonate), scientists were able to obtain remarkably high brain magnesium concentrations compared to other forms tested.

In one study, just 24 days oral supplementation with magnesium-L-threonate produced an increase in cerebrospinal magnesium sufficient to boost short- and long-term memory scores. Other forms of magnesium (such as magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate, and magnesium gluconate) did not significantly elevate brain magnesium compared to the control group.13,22

Another test on aging animals (rats) that had suffered memory decline showed that magnesium-L-threonate could reverse the kind of cognitive dysfunction that occurs in normal aging humans. The animals had magnesium-L-threonate added to their drinking water for one month. The findings showed improvements of 18% in short-term memory in animals treated with magnesium-L-threonate. In a validated test for long-term memory, these same animals supplemented with magnesium- L-threonate exhibited 100% enhanced performance.13

Enhancement of Spatial Short-term Memory


Spatial memory relates to how an organism functions in a particular space. In this study, groups of animals were reward-trained in a maze. At the end of training, some groups received magnesium-L-threonate while the others served as controls.

In the young animal control group, there was no change in ability to navigate the maze. In young animals supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate, there was better performance (up to 13% improvement). Aged animals supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate performed 18% better than the aged control group (not given magnesium-L-threonate).13

The scientists stated that a significant improvement in choice accuracy was apparent 6 days after initiation of magnesium-L-threonate supplementation and this improvement continued for more than 30 days after cessation of magnesium-L-threonate in young animals. This finding helps validate the longer-term benefit of the increase in synaptic density. Strikingly, spatial performance of aged animals was re-enhanced within 12 days of re-initiation of magnesium-L-threonate supplementation.13

The scientists concluded that magnesium-L-threonate treatment can enhance the spatial working memory in young and aged rats.13

Enhanced Long-Term Spatial Performance

Young and old animals underwent maze training with a delay interval. Animals supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate learned to find the hidden platform in the maze faster than non-supplemented animals. In addition, the degree of learning ability enhancement in the aged animals was greater than in young animals. This makes sense since aged animals suffer from loss of synaptic density that magnesium-L-threonate has been shown to restore.13

To test the long-term spatial memory, a second trial test was performed 24 hours later. The unsupplemented "control" group forgot how to perform in the maze, whereas young and aged animals supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate retained their ability to navigate the maze. This might be equivalent to an older human being able to find their car in a crowded parking lot. In statistical terms, supplementation with magnesium-L-threonate resulted in long-term spatial memory improvement of 122% in younger animals - and 100% in older animals.13

The researchers concluded, "magnesium-L-threonate significantly enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in both young and aged rats."13

Correlation Between Increased Synaptic Density and Memory

To verify that the mechanism behind these improvements in memory and cognitive performance was due to increased density of the synapses, studies were done to precisely measure the various synaptic structural components in the brain.

The rats supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate showed across-the-board improvements in synaptic protein expression, function, and structure, along with long-term potentiation of synaptic strength.13

Aging and Synaptic Decline

Several studies indicate that synaptic connections decline in the portion of the brain essential for memory, and the degree of loss of synapses correlates with the impairment of memory functions.23-25

To evaluate the impact of magnesium-L-threonate on old animals, one group received the supplement while an unsupplemented group served as controls. After only 1 month, autopsy findings showed synaptic density was 67% higher in the group supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate. This study showed that even in old animals, magnesium-L-threonate increased the density of synaptic components essential for youthful neurotransmitter release.13

Critical Importance of Magnesium

Critical Importance of Magnesium

Since 1981, Life Extension has recommended high-potency magnesium supplements. The reason is that magnesium is perhaps the most deficient mineral in the American diet.

With all the research linking low magnesium intake with high cardiovascular risks, this mineral would appear to be a simple way to help counter the heart attack and stroke epidemic plaguing aging Americans.

A government study shows a staggering 68% of Americans do not consume the recommended daily intake of magnesium.26 Even more frightening are data from this same study showing that 19% of Americans do not consume even half of the governments recommended daily intake of magnesium.26 Is it any wonder that disability and death from heart attack and stroke are the nations leading killers?

In the early 1980s, the Life Extension Foundation® was criticized by mainstream doctors for recommending high doses of magnesium relative to calcium. We even had our magnesium supplements seized by the FDA because we presented evidence that it could help prevent heart attack.

While the FDA refuses to recognize the value of magnesium, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) published the following on its website:

"Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes."27

The nations leading health agency (NIH) acknowledges magnesiums critical role in keeping us alive, yet the FDA has done everything it could to keep this mineral out of Americans bodies. The death toll from the FDAs censorship of magnesium is beyond comprehension.

Potential to Stave Off Health Care Cost Crisis

The cost of caring for those stricken with Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders is adversely impacting this nations health care system. The enormous burden placed on families with senile loved ones destroys their productivity during critical working years.

Magnesium supplements are widely available, but many do not provide optimal absorption into the bloodstream and virtually none into the brain to restore critical synaptic density.

Widespread supplementation with magnesium-L-threonate has the potential to slash the incidences of many neurological disorders afflicting the aging population. Clinical trials are now beginning to assess whether magnesium-L-threonate functions as well in aging humans as it does in rodents.

With the wealth of data validating the systemic benefits of magnesium, those who dont want to wait years for the human studies to conclude should consider supplementing with 2,000 mg each day of magnesium-L-threonate. Based on animal data, noticeable improvements might occur within a relatively short time.

Startling Discoveries Revealed at 2011 Alzheimer's Conference
Startling Discoveries Revealed at 2011 Alzheimer's Conference

In a series of explosive findings, researchers confirmed that destructive changes begin ravaging the brain years or decades before patients have enough memory loss symptoms to be diagnosed.

At the most recent Alzheimer's Association International Conference in Paris, more than 100 papers were presented showing that Alzheimer's changes occur earlier in life than mainstream medicine originally thought.28 This means that people can initiate interventions today that may afford substantial protection against future Alzheimer's senility.

In a separate study released in 2011,29 a group of transgenic mice were fed a diet fortified with nutrients already consumed by most Life Extension members. The supplemented nutrients were curcumin,30-32 EGCG33-37 (a principal active polyphenol in green tea) lipoic acid,38-42 N-acetyl cysteine,43-46 vitamin C,47-49 folate,50-55 and B vitamins.56-59

There is evidence to suggest these nutrients (and others) protect human brains from pathological deterioration that eventually manifests as Alzheimer's. In this mouse model of Alzheimer's, feeding these nutrients for 6 months resulted in spatial learning abilities in this animal model of Alzheimer's disease indistinguishable from normal (control) mice.29

Remarkably, other test parameters indicated that the nutrient cocktail, similar to what many Life Extension members have consumed for many years, restored both acquisition and memory deficits to normal (non-transgenic) levels in transgenic mice doomed to develop Alzheimer's disease cognitive damage.

Even more compelling was a decrease in certain types of amyloid-beta from the Alzheimer's disease - prone supplemented animals' brains.29 A hallmark pathological feature of Alzheimer's is the accumulation of amyloid-beta that clogs and destroys tiny structural machinery inside neurons resulting in full-blown senility. Specifically, supplemented transgenic animals experienced decreases in soluble Ab40 and Ab42, as well as a decrease in insoluble Ab40.29 Soluble amyloid-beta is much more toxic and can cause neuron death in as little as 12 hours.60,61

These findings, along with newly released studies about magnesium-L-threonate, suggest that proactive steps can be taken today to slow and reverse pathological changes that manifest as Alzheimer's disease in far too many of us.

Battling Government Inertia

Battling Government Inertia

Even if human trials corroborate the unprecedented laboratory research you have just read about magnesium-L-threonate, there might not be enough money available to have the FDA approve it for conventional human use.

Life Extension is on the front lines battling these kinds of bureaucratic roadblocks that keep safe and effective natural therapies out of the reach of most Americans.

The issue of Life Extension Magazine® youll receive in January 2012 provides a technical review of the multiple mechanisms by which magnesium-L-threonate has been shown to reverse neurologic decay. We are introducing it now so that members who want to try it are not delayed.

Once a year, we discount all of our advanced formulas so that members can stock up at extra low prices. We hope youll take advantage of these Super Sale prices to obtain premium-grade supplements to protect your health today, while helping us battle the oppressive forces of censorship and over-regulation that are suffocating medical innovation.

For longer life,

For Longer Life

William Faloon


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