Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Mar 2013


Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population-based CAIDE study.

Caffeine stimulates central nervous system on a short term. However, the long-term impact of caffeine on cognition remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between coffee and/or tea consumption at midlife and dementia/Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk in late-life. Participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study were randomly selected from the survivors of a population-based cohorts previously surveyed within the North Karelia Project and the FINMONICA study in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987 (midlife visit). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1,409 individuals (71%) aged 65 to 79 completed the re-examination in 1998. A total of 61 cases were identified as demented (48 with AD). Coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk of dementia and AD later in life compared with those drinking no or only little coffee adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and vascular factors, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and depressive symptoms. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found in people who drank 3-5 cups per day. Tea drinking was relatively uncommon and was not associated with dementia/AD. Coffee drinking at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD later in life. This finding might open possibilities for prevention of dementia/AD.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(1):85-91

Coenzyme Q10 protects against amyloid beta-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and activating the P13K pathway.

Oxidative stress plays critical roles in the pathogenic mechanisms of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), thus much research effort has focused on antioxidants as potential treatment agents for AD. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is known to have powerful antioxidant effects. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 against Amyloid beta(25-35) (Aβ(25-35))-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 on Aβ(25-35)-injured neurons, primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with several concentrations of CoQ10 and/or Aβ(25-35) for 48h. CoQ10 protected neuronal cells against Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. These neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 were blocked by LY294002 (10μM), a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Aβ(25-35) concentration-dependent increased free radical levels in rat cortical neurons, while combined treatment with CoQ10 reduced these free radical levels in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, CoQ10 treatment of Aβ(25-35)-injured primary cultured cortical neurons increased the expression levels of p85aPI3K, phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and heat shock transcription factor, which are proteins related to neuronal cell survival, and decreased the levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3, which are associated with neuronal cell death. Together, these results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10 on Aβ(25-35) neurotoxicity are mediated by inhibition of oxidative stress together with activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway.

Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jan;33(1):85-90

Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial.

INTRODUCTION: A 24-week randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a 240 mg once-daily preparation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in 404 outpatients ≥ 50 years diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia (SKT 9-23), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD), with neuropsychiatric features (NPI total score ≥ 5). METHODS: Separate analyses were performed for diagnostic subgroups (probable or possible AD; VaD). RESULTS: 333 patients were diagnosed with AD and 71 with VaD. EGb 761® treatment was superior to placebo with respect to the SKT total score (drug-placebo differences: 1.7 for AD, p<0.001, and 1.4 for VaD, p<0.05) and the NPI total score (drug-placebo differences: 3.1 for AD, p<0.001 and 3.2 for VaD, p<0.05). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for most secondary outcome variables with no major differences between AD and VaD subgroups. Rates of adverse events in EGb 761® and placebo groups were essentially similar. CONCLUSION: EGb 761® improved cognitive functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional abilities in both types of dementia.

Pharmacopsychiatry. 2012 Mar;45(2):41-6

Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease.

Recent experimental evidences suggest protective and trophic effects of ginseng in the memory function of Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the clinical efficacy of Panax ginseng in the cognitive performance of AD patients in an open-label study. Consecutive AD patients were randomly assigned to the ginseng (n=58) or the control group (n=39), and the ginseng group was treated with Panax ginseng powder (4.5 g/d) for 12 weeks. Cognitive performances were monitored using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer disease assessment scale (ADAS) during 12 weeks of the ginseng treatment and at 12 weeks after the ginseng discontinuation. MMSE and ADAS scales showed no baseline difference between the groups. After ginseng treatment, the cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and continued up to 12 weeks (P=0.029 and P=0.009 vs. baseline, respectively). After discontinuing ginseng, the improved ADAS and MMSE scores declined to the levels of the control group. These results suggest that Panax ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of AD patients.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jul-Sep;22 (3):222-6

Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.

Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Apr;36(5):1073-89

The combination of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid treatment has therapeutic effects on the pathogenic phenotypes of Alzheimer’s disease in NSE/APPsw-transgenic mice.

Exercise training was suggested as a practical therapeutic strategy for human subjects suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in our previous study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combining exercise training with the administration of antioxidants on the pathological phenotype of AD. To accomplish this, non-transgenic mice (Non-Tg) and NSE/APPsw Tg mice were treated with alpha-lipoic acid and treadmill exercised for 16 weeks, after which their brains were evaluated to determine whether any changes in the pathological phenotype-related factors occurred. The results indicated that (i) the combination-applied (COMA) Tg group with exercise training (ET) and alpha-lipoic acid administration (LA) showed ameliorated spatial learning and memory compared to the sedentary (SED)-Tg and single-treatment groups; (ii) there were no differences in the level of Abeta-42 peptides across groups; (iii) the level of glucose transporter-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins were highly increased in the COMA group, (iv) ET and LA did not induce a synergistic effect on the expression of heat shock protein-70 and apoptotic proteins including Bax and caspase-3; (v) the levels of SOD-1 and CAT suppressing oxidative stress were extensively higher in the COMA than in the single-treated groups and (vi) there were no significant differences across groups regarding these serum characteristics, although these levels were lower than the SED-Tg group. Taken together, these results suggest that the combination with ET and LA may contribute to protect the neuron injury induced by Abeta peptides and may be considered an effective therapeutic strategy for human subjects suffering from AD.

Int J Mol Med. 2010 Mar;25(3):337-46

Pleiotropic protective effects of phytochemicals in Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a severe chronic neurodegenerative disorder of the brain characterised by progressive impairment in memory and cognition. In the past years an intense research has aimed at dissecting the molecular events of AD. However, there is not an exhaustive knowledge about AD pathogenesis and a limited number of therapeutic options are available to treat this neurodegenerative disease. Consequently, considering the heterogeneity of AD, therapeutic agents acting on multiple levels of the pathology are needed. Recent findings suggest that phytochemicals compounds with neuroprotective features may be an important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against AD. In this paper we will describe some polyphenols and we will discuss their potential role as neuroprotective agents. Specifically, curcumin, catechins, and resveratrol beyond their antioxidant activity are also involved in antiamyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We will focus on specific molecular targets of these selected phytochemical compounds highlighting the correlations between their neuroprotective functions and their potential therapeutic value in AD.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:386527

Vitamin D-mentia: randomized clinical trials should be the next step.

Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in the elderly. Its possible role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is particularly important, as AD remains a public health concern with no current efficient treatment. Vitamin D administration could be a multitarget stabilizing treatment for AD since vitamin D simultaneously targets several factors leading to neurodegeneration through immunoregulatory, antioxidant and anti-ischemic actions, as well as the regulation of neurotrophic factors, acetylcholine neurotransmitter and clearance of amyloid beta peptide, and the avoidance of hyperparathyroidism. By preventing neuronal loss, the question is whether correcting hypovitaminosis D among older adults could also prevent AD-related cognitive decline. The cross-sectional associations between the vitamin D intakes--whether from diet, sun exposure or drug supplements--and cognition strengthened this hypothesis, but prevented the finding of a cause and effect link. Pre-post studies showed an improvement of cognition concomitant with the increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. One randomized trial found that supraphysiological doses of vitamin D were not better than physiological doses at improving cognition in AD. At this stage, only clinical trials testing vitamin D supplements versus placebo can further determine the impact of vitamin D administration on cognition and AD with higher levels of evidence.

Neuroepidemiology. 2011;37(3-4):249-58

Formulation of a medical food cocktail for Alzheimer’s disease: beneficial effects on cognition and neuropathology in a mouse model of the disease.

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitamins, vitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD hallmark features and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the Tg2576 mouse model of the disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study found that administering the medical food cocktail for 6 months improved cortical- and hippocampal- dependent learning in the transgenic mice, rendering their performance indistinguishable from non-transgenic controls. Coinciding with this improvement in learning and memory, we found that treatment resulted in decreased soluble Aβ, including Aβ oligomers, previously found to be linked to cognitive functioning. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that combination diet consisting of natural dietary supplements improves cognitive functioning while decreasing AD neuropathology and may thus represent a safe, natural treatment for AD.

PLoS One. 2010 Nov 17;5(11):e14015

Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control.

In addition to its essential role in permitting mitochondrial import and oxidation of long chain fatty acids, carnitine also functions as an acyl group acceptor that facilitates mitochondrial export of excess carbons in the form of acylcarnitines. Recent evidence suggests carnitine requirements increase under conditions of sustained metabolic stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that carnitine insufficiency might contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. Consistent with this prediction whole body carnitine diminution was identified as a common feature of insulin-resistant states such as advanced age, genetic diabetes, and diet-induced obesity. In rodents fed a lifelong (12 month) high fat diet, compromised carnitine status corresponded with increased skeletal muscle accumulation of acylcarnitine esters and diminished hepatic expression of carnitine biosynthetic genes. Diminished carnitine reserves in muscle of obese rats was accompanied by marked perturbations in mitochondrial fuel metabolism, including low rates of complete fatty acid oxidation, elevated incomplete beta-oxidation, and impaired substrate switching from fatty acid to pyruvate. These mitochondrial abnormalities were reversed by 8 weeks of oral carnitine supplementation, in concert with increased tissue efflux and urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine and improvement of whole body glucose tolerance. Acetylcarnitine is produced by the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). A role for this enzyme in combating glucose intolerance was further supported by the finding that CrAT overexpression in primary human skeletal myocytes increased glucose uptake and attenuated lipid-induced suppression of glucose oxidation. These results implicate carnitine insufficiency and reduced CrAT activity as reversible components of the metabolic syndrome.

J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22840-52

Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42- mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: implications for Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognition and by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain. Amyloid-beta peptide, particularly the 42-amino-acid peptide (Abeta(1-42)), is a principal component of senile plaques and is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of the disease. The AD brain is under significant oxidative stress, and Abeta(1-42) peptide is known to cause oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound that helps to maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics and lowers the increased oxidative stress associated with aging. Glutathione (GSH) is an important endogenous antioxidant, and its levels have been shown to decrease with aging. Administration of ALCAR increases cellular levels of GSH in rat astrocytes. In the current study, we investigated whether ALCAR plays a protective role in cortical neuronal cells against Abeta(1-42)-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Decreased cell survival in neuronal cultures treated with Abeta(1-42) correlated with an increase in protein oxidation (protein carbonyl, 3-nitrotyrosine) and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) formation. Pretreatment of primary cortical neuronal cultures with ALCAR significantly attenuated Abeta(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of ALCAR to neurons also led to an elevated cellular GSH and heat shock proteins (HSPs) levels compared with untreated control cells. Our results suggest that ALCAR exerts protective effects against Abeta(1-42) toxicity and oxidative stress in part by up-regulating the levels of GSH and HSPs. This evidence supports the pharmacological potential of acetyl carnitine in the management of Abeta(1-42)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Therefore, ALCAR may be useful as a possible therapeutic strategy for patients with AD.

J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 1;84(2):398-408

Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging.

It is now generally accepted that aging and eventual death of multicellular organisms is to a large extent related to macromolecular damage by mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, mostly affecting long-lived postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. These cells are rarely or not at all replaced during life and can be as old as the whole organism. The inherent inability of autophagy and other cellular-degradation mechanisms to remove damaged structures completely results in the progressive accumulation of garbage, including cytosolic protein aggregates, defective mitochondria, and lipofuscin, an intralysosomal indigestible material. In this review, we stress the importance of crosstalk between mitochondria and lysosomes in aging. The slow accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes seems to depress autophagy, resulting in reduced turnover of effective mitochondria. The latter not only are functionally deficient but also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, prompting lipofuscinogenesis. Moreover, defective and enlarged mitochondria are poorly autophagocytosed and constitute a growing population of badly functioning organelles that do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria. The progress of these changes seems to result in enhanced oxidative stress, decreased ATP production, and collapse of the cellular catabolic machinery, which eventually is incompatible with survival.

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Apr;12(4):503-35

Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia.

Understanding age-related sarcopenia and, more importantly, devising counterstrategies require an intimate knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s) of sarcopenia. The mitochondrial theory of aging (MTA) has been a leading theory on aging for the last decade; however, there is relatively little information from human tissue to support or rebut the involvement of the MTA in aging skeletal muscle. It is believed that mitochondria may contribute to sarcopenia in a stochastic fashion where regions of fibers containing dysfunctional mitochondria are forced to atrophy. Resistance exercise, a known hypertrophic stimulus, has been shown to improve the mitochondrial phenotype of aged skeletal muscle. Furthermore, activation of skeletal muscle stem cells by resistance exercise may attenuate sarcopenia in two ways. First by inducing nuclear addition to postmitotic fibers, and, second, by increasing the proportion of functional mitochondria donated by muscle stem cells in a process termed ‘gene shifting’. In this chapter we review the evidence supporting the MTA, the potential to attenuate the MTA with a known hypertrophic stimuli and explore the role of muscle stem cells in gene shifting to determine the connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and age-related sarcopenia.

Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2010;37:142-56

Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Brain Aging: Role of Oxidative Stress and Modulation by Antioxidant Supplementation.

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are two interdependent and reinforcing damage mechanisms that play a central role in brain aging. Oxidative stress initiated and propagated by active oxyradicals and various other free radicals in the presence of catalytic metal ions not only can damage the phospholipid, protein and DNA molecules within the cell but can also modulate cell signalling pathways and gene expression pattern and all these processes may be of critical importance in the aging of brain. The present article describes the mechanism of formation of reactive oxyradicals within mitochondria and then explains how these can initiate mitochondrial biogenesis program and activate various transcriptional factors in the cytosol to boost up the antioxidative capacity of the mitochondria and the cell. However, a high level of oxidative stress finally inflicts critical damage to the oxidative phosphorylation machinery and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The latter part of the article is a catalogue showing the accumulating evidence in favour of oxidative inactivation of mitochondrial functions in aged brain and the detailed reports of various studies with antioxidant supplementation claiming variable success in preventing the age-related brain mitochondrial decay and cognitive decline. The antioxidant supplementation approach may be of potential help in the management of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. The newly developed mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have brought a new direction to experimental studies related to oxidative damage and they may provide potential drugs in near future for a variety of diseases or degenerative conditions including brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

Aging Dis. 2011 Jun;2(3):242-56.

Contribution of impaired mitochondrial autophagy to cardiac aging: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease increases with advancing age. Although long-term exposure to cardiovascular risk factors plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, intrinsic cardiac aging enhances the susceptibility to developing heart pathologies in late life. The progressive decline of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function is considered a major mechanism underlying heart senescence. Damaged mitochondria not only produce less ATP but also generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and display a greater propensity to trigger apoptosis. Given the postmitotic nature of cardiomyocytes, the efficient removal of dysfunctional mitochondria is critical for the maintenance of cell homeostasis, because damaged organelles cannot be diluted by cell proliferation. The only known mechanism whereby mitochondria are turned over is through macroautophagy. The efficiency of this process declines with advancing age, which may play a critical role in heart senescence and age-related cardiovascular disease. The present review illustrates the putative mechanisms whereby alterations in the autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria intervene in the process of cardiac aging and in the pathogenesis of specific heart diseases that are especially prevalent in late life (eg, left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy). Interventions proposed to counteract cardiac aging through improvements in macroautophagy (eg, calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics) are also presented.

Circ Res. 2012 Apr 13;110(8):1125-38

Mitochondria, body fat and type 2 diabetes: what is the connection?

This review will consider the concept that the development of a mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes is an early step in the pathogenesis for type 2 diabetes. Upon expansion of the adipose mass it becomes gradually inflamed and hypoxic. TNF-alpha, locally produced, induces insulin resistance of adipocytes leading to enhanced lipolysis. The excess of fatty acids, in combination with local hypoxia, results in the induction of mitochondrial damage in the adipocytes. As a result of this decline in mitochondrial activity less fatty acids can be removed within adipocytes by uncoupled mitochondrial beta-oxidation and by re-esterification, as mitochondrial activity provides substrates for glyceroneogenesis. As a result these fatty acids redistribute to other compartments of the body where they are stored as ectopic triglyceride deposits. This situation is associated with the development of insulin resistance of the liver and muscle. Furthermore, it contributes to damage the pancreatic beta-cells. Ultimately, this situation results in the development of a hyperglycemic state.

Minerva Med. 2008 Jun;99(3):241-51

Mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin insensitivity: implication of mitochondrial role in type 2 diabetes.

Abundant evidence has been accumulated to suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes. Research findings from this and other laboratories have supported the notion that impaired mitochondrial function is a cause of insulin insensitivity in myocytes and adipocytes as a result of insufficient supply of energy or defects in the insulin signaling pathway. We demonstrated that inhibition of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation by respiratory inhibitors or knockdown of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis can impair the differentiation of preadipocytes and response of adipocytes to insulin. Moreover, defective mitochondria also cause a decrease in adiponectin secretion that leads to decline glucose utilization of other tissues. Besides, it has been elucidated that some environmental factors, pollutants, and mitochondrial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Taken together, we suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of insulin insensitivity, and that activation of mitochondrial biogenesis may be an effective strategy in the prevention or treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jul;1201:157-65

L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat.

In mammals, during the aging process, an atrophy of the muscle fibers, an increase in body fat mass, and a decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacities occur. Compounds and activities that interact with lipid oxidative metabolism may be useful in limiting damages that occur in aging muscle. In this study, we evaluated the effect of L-carnitine and physical exercise on several parameters related to muscle physiology. We described that supplementing old rats with L-carnitine at 30 mg/kg body weight for 12 weeks (a) allowed the restoration of L-carnitine level in muscle cells, (b) restored muscle oxidative activity in the soleus, and (c) induced positive changes in body composition: a decrease in abdominal fat mass and an increase in muscle capabilities without any change in food intake. Moderate physical exercise was also effective in (a) limiting fat mass gain and (b) inducing an increase in the capacities of the soleus to oxidize fatty acids.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1027-33

Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation restores decreased tissue carnitine levels and impaired lipid metabolism in aged rats.

The effects of long-term carnitine supplementation on age-related changes in tissue carnitine levels and in lipid metabolism were investigated. The total carnitine levels in heart, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus were approximately 20% less in aged rats (22 months old) than in young rats (6 months old). On the contrary, plasma carnitine levels were not affected by aging. Supplementation of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR; 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 months) significantly increased tissue carnitine levels in aged rats but had little effect on tissue carnitine levels in young rats. Plasma lipoprotein analyses revealed that triacylglycerol levels in VLDL and cholesterol levels in LDL and in HDL were all significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats. ALCAR treatment decreased all lipoprotein fractions and consequently the levels of triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The reduction in plasma cholesterol contents in ALCAR-treated aged rats was attributable mainly to a decrease of cholesteryl esters rather than to a decrease of free cholesterol. Another remarkable effect of ALCAR was that it decreased the cholesterol content and cholesterol-phospholipid ratio in the brain tissues of aged rats. These results indicate that chronic ALCAR supplementation reverses the age-associated changes in lipid metabolism.

J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr;45(4):729-35

Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation to old rats partially reverts the age-related mitochondrial decay of soleus muscle by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis.

The age-related decay of mitochondrial function is a major contributor to the aging process. We tested the effects of 2-month-daily acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis in the soleus muscle of aged rats. This muscle is heavily dependent on oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA content, citrate synthase activity, transcript levels of some nuclear- and mitochondrial-coded genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV [COX-IV], 16S rRNA, COX-I) and of some factors involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [PPARgamma] coactivator-1alpha [PGC-1alpha], mitochondrial transcription factor A mitochondrial [TFAM], mitochondrial transcription factor 2B [TFB2]), as well as the protein content of PGC-1alpha were determined. The results suggest that the ALCAR treatment in old rats activates PGC-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis, thus partially reverting the age-related mitochondrial decay.

Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Apr-Jun;13(2-3): 148-51

L-Carnitine attenuates angiotensin II-induced proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts: role of NADPH oxidase inhibition and decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate generation.

The heart is unable to synthesize L-carnitine and is strictly dependent on the L-carnitine provided by the blood stream; however, additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of L-carnitine supplementation to the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore its intracellular mechanism(s). Cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts were pretreated with L-carnitine (1-30 mM) then stimulated with Ang II (100 nM). Ang II increased fibroblast proliferation and endothelin-1 expression, which were partially inhibited by L-carnitine. L-carnitine also attenuated Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species formation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, activator protein-1-mediated reporter activity and sphingosine-1-phosphate generation. In addition, L-carnitine increased prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation in cardiac fibroblasts. siRNA transfection of PGI(2) synthase significantly reduced L-carnitine-induced PGI(2) and its anti-proliferation effects on cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, blockading potential PGI(2) receptors, including immunoprecipitation (IP) receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPAR alpha) and delta, revealed that siRNA-mediated blockage of PPAR alpha considerably reduced the anti-proliferation effect of L-carnitine. In summary, these results suggest that L-carnitine attenuates Ang II-induced effects (including NADPH oxidase activation, sphingosine-1-phosphate generation and cell proliferation) in part through PGI(2) and PPAR alpha-signaling pathways.

J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Jul;21(7):580-8

Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation reverses the age-related decline in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity in interfibrillar mitochondria without changing the L-carnitine content in the rat heart.

The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of L-carnitine, which would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for β-oxidation. Old (24-28 mos) Fischer 344 rats were fed±acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR; 1.5% [w/v]) for up to four weeks prior to sacrifice and isolation of cardiac interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria. IFM displayed a 28% (p<0.05) age-related loss of CPT1 activity, which correlated with a decline (41%, p<0.05) in palmitoyl-CoA-driven state 3 respiration. Interestingly, SSM had preserved enzyme function and efficiently utilized palmitate. Analysis of IFM CPT1 kinetics showed both diminished V(max) and K(m) (60% and 49% respectively, p<0.05) when palmitoyl-CoA was the substrate. However, no age-related changes in enzyme kinetics were evident with respect to L-carnitine. ALCAR supplementation restored CPT1 activity in heart IFM, but not apparently through remediation of L-carnitine levels. Rather, ALCAR influenced enzyme activity over time, potentially by modulating conditions in the aging heart that ultimately affect palmitoyl-CoA binding and CPT1 kinetics.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2012 Feb-Mar;133(2-3): 99-106

L-carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure—experimental and clinical study.

To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of l-carnitine in heart failure, the myocardial carnitine levels and the therapeutic efficacy of l-carnitine were studied in cardiomyopathic BIO 14.6 hamsters and in patients with chronic congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease. BIO 14.6 hamsters and patients with heart failure were found to have reduced myocardial free carnitine levels (BIO 14.6 vs FI, 287 +/- 26.0 vs 384.8 +/- 83.8 nmol/g wet weight, p less than 0.05; patients with heart failure vs without heart failure, 412 +/- 142 vs 769 +/- 267 nmol/g p less than 0.01). On the other hand, long-chain acylcarnitine level was significantly higher in the patients with heart failure (532 +/- 169 vs 317 +/- 72 nmol/g, p less than 0.01). Significant myocardial damage in BIO 14.6 hamsters was prevented by the intraperitoneal administration of l-carnitine in the early stage of cardiomyopathy. Similarly, oral administration of l-carnitine for 12 weeks significantly improved the exercise tolerance of patients with effort angina. In 9 patients with chronic congestive heart failure, 5 patients (55%) moved to a lower NYHA class and the overall condition was improved in 6 patients (66%) after treatment with l-carnitine. L-carnitine is capable of reversing the inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocase and thus can restore the fatty acid oxidation mechanism which constitutes the main energy source for the myocardium. Therefore, these results indicate that l-carnitine is a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of congestive heart failure in combination with traditional pharmacological therapy.

Jpn Circ J. 1992 Jan;56(1):86-94

Additional antiischemic effects of long-term L-propionylcarnitine in anginal patients treated with conventional antianginal therapy.

Cardiac L-carnitine content, essential for mitochondrial fatty acid transport and ATP-ADP exchange, decreases during ischemia. In animal models, administration of the natural derivative, L-propionylcarnitine, may reduce ischemia and improve cardiac function. To evaluate possible antiischemic effects of L-propionylcarnitine was compared with placebo in a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, in addition to preexisting therapy. Patients with > or = 2 anginal attacks per week and objective signs of ischemia with angina during bicycle exercise testing were included. After an initial 2-week, single-blind placebo phase, 37 patients received 500 mg L-propionylcarnitine tid, and 37 patients received placebo for 6 weeks. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Three patients discontinued the study while on placebo (two because of noncompliance, one because of palpitations) and one while on L-propionylcarnitine (noncompliance). Although heart rate, blood pressure at rest, and maximal exercise were not affected, L-propionylcarnitine increased the time to 0.1 mV ST-segment depression [44 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 2 seconds (mean +/- SEM) in the placebo group; p = 0.05], and exercise duration improved by 5% compared with placebo. Anginal attacks and the consumption of nitroglycerin were not affected in either group. Thus, following a 6 week treatment period, L-propionylcarnitine induced additional, albeit marginal, antiischemic effects in anginal patients who were still symptomatic despite maximal conventional antianginal therapy. It is questionable whether in these patients this form of metabolic treatment will achieve great benefit, although in some improvement can be expected.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1995 Dec;9(6):749-53

Value of carnitine therapy in kidney dialysis patients and effects on cardiac function from human and animal studies.

Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality, accounting for 50% of all deaths among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The majority of these deaths are from cardiac causes. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility to myocardial ischaemia and subsequent morbidity in ESRD remain ill-defined. Numerous metabolic derangements accompany myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion and play a pivotal role in the development of concurrent myocardial dysfunction. Carnitine plays a critical role in myocardial energy metabolism, as the transporter of long chain fatty acyl intermediates across the inner mitochondrial membrane for oxidation and as a central regulator of carbohydrate metabolism. Myocardial carnitine is significantly depleted during ischaemia and more particularly in uraemic patients and those on dialysis therapy. Carnitine treatment has cardiovascular benefits including modulation of myocardial metabolism, reduction in necrotic cell death and infarct size, decrease in the incidence of arrhythmias and preservation of mechanical function. This review details the profile of substrate metabolism in the uraemic heart and the impact of carnitine supplementation on metabolism and function of the reperfused heart and finally the experimental and clinical evidence for carnitine replacement therapy, in particular its impact on the uraemic heart via modulation of function and energetics.

Curr Drug Targets. 2012 Feb;13(2):285-93

Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction.

A controlled study was carried out on 160 patients of both sexes (age between 39 and 86 years) discharged from the Cardiology Department of the Santa Chiara Hospital, Pisa, with a diagnosis of recent myocardial infarction. L-carnitine was randomly administered to 81 patients at an oral dose of g 4/die for 12 months, in addition to the pharmacological treatment generally used. For the whole period of 12 months, these patients showed, in comparison with the controls, an improvement in heart rate (p < 0.005), systolic arterial pressure (p < 0.005) and diastolic arterial pressure (NS); a decrease of anginal attacks (p < 0.005), of rhythm disorders (NS) and of clinical signs of impaired myocardial contractility (NS), and a clear improvement in the lipid pattern (p < 0.005). The above changes were accompanied by a lower mortality in the treated group (1.2%, p < 0.005), while in the control group there was a mortality of 12.5%. Furthermore, in the control group there was a definite prevalence of deaths caused by reinfarction and sudden death. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that L-carnitine represents an effective treatment in post-infarction ischaemic cardiopathy, since it can improve the clinical evolution of this pathological condition as well as the patient’s quality of life and life expectancy.

Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(8):355-65

Propionyl-L-carnitine improves postischemic blood flow recovery and arteriogenetic revascularization and reduces endothelial NADPH-oxidase 4-mediated superoxide production.

OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effect of the natural compound propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) on intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease is attributed to its anaplerotic function in ischemic tissues, but inadequate information is available concerning action on the vasculature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of PLC in rabbit hind limb collateral vessels after femoral artery excision, mouse dorsal air pouch, chicken chorioallantoic membrane, and vascular cells by angiographic, Doppler flow, and histomorphometrical and biomolecular analyses. PLC injection accelerated hind limb blood flow recovery after 4 days (P<0.05) and increased angiographic quadriceps collateral vascularization after 7 days (P<0.001) Histomorphometry confirmed the increased vascular area (P<0.05), with unchanged intramuscular capillary density. PLC-induced dilatative adaptation, and growth was found associated with increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and reduced arterial vascular endothelial growth factor and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. PLC also increased vascularization in air pouch and chorioallantoic membrane (P<0.05), particularly in large vessels. PLC increased endothelial and human umbilical vascular endothelial cell proliferation and rapidly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-oxidase 4-mediated reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells; NADPH-oxidase 4 also regulated NF-kappaB-independent intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided strong evidence that PLC improves postischemic flow recovery and revascularization and reduces endothelial NADPH-oxidase-related superoxide production. We recommend that PLC should be included among therapeutic interventions that target endothelial function.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Mar;30(3):426-35

Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Propionyl-l-carnitine (pLc) exerts protective effects in different experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenously and topically applied pLc on microvascular permeability increase induced by I/R in the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: The hamster cheek pouch microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to venular walls, perfused capillary length, and capillary red blood cell velocity (V(RBC)) were evaluated by computer-assisted methods. E-selectin expression was assessed by in vitro analysis. Lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were determined by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 2’-7’-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), respectively. RESULTS: In control animals, I/R caused a significant increase in permeability and in the leukocyte adhesion in venules. Capillary perfusion and V(RBC) decreased. TBARS levels and DCF fluorescence significantly increased compared with baseline. Intravenously infused pLc dose-dependently prevented leakage and leukocyte adhesion, preserved capillary perfusion, and induced vasodilation at the end of reperfusion, while ROS concentration decreased. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase prior to pLc caused vasoconstriction and partially blunted the pLc-induced protective effects; inhibition of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) abolished pLc effects. Topical application of pLc on cheek pouch membrane produced the same effects as observed with intravenous administration. pLc decreased the E-selectin expression. CONCLUSIONS: pLc prevents microvascular changes induced by I/R injury. The reduction of permeability increase could be mainly due to EDHF release induce vasodilatation together with NO. The reduction of E-selectin expression prevents leukocyte adhesion and permeability increase

Front Physiol. 2010 Oct 19;1:132

The role of nitric oxide on endothelial function.

The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells between the vessel lumen and the vascular smooth muscle cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas continuously synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine in endothelial cells by the constitutive calcium-calmodulin-dependent enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This substance has a wide range of biological properties that maintain vascular homeostasis, including modulation of vascular dilator tone, regulation of local cell growth, and protection of the vessel from injurious consequences of platelets and cells circulating in blood, playing in this way a crucial role in the normal endothelial function. A growing list of conditions, including those commonly associated as risk factors for atherosclerosis such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus and heart failure are associated with diminished release of nitric oxide into the arterial wall either because of impaired synthesis or excessive oxidative degradation. The decreased production of NO in these pathological states causes serious problems in endothelial equilibrium and that is the reason why numerous therapies have been investigated to assess the possibility of reversing endothelial dysfunction by enhancing the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. In the present review we will discuss the important role of nitric oxide in physiological endothelium and we will pinpoint the significance of this molecule in pathological states altering the endothelial function.

Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jan;10(1):4-18

Grape juice causes endothelium-dependent relaxation via a redox-sensitive Src- and Akt-dependent activation of eNOS.

OBJECTIVES: An enhanced endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), is thought to contribute to the protective effect of moderate consumption of red wine on coronary diseases. The present study has characterized endothelium-dependent relaxations to Concord grape juice (CGJ), a non-alcoholic rich source of grape-derived polyphenols, in the coronary artery. METHODS: Porcine coronary artery rings were suspended in organ chambers for the measurement of changes in isometric tension in the presence of indomethacin. NO formation was assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and the phosphorylation of Src, Akt and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) by Western blot analysis in cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: Endothelium-dependent relaxations to CGJ were slightly but significantly reduced by L-NA, not affected by charybdotoxin (CTX) plus apamin (APA, two inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) whereas the combination of L-NA, CTX plus APA reduced maximal relaxation to about 50%. In the presence of CTX plus APA, relaxations to CGJ were markedly reduced by the membrane permeant mimetic of superoxide dismutase (SOD), MnTMPyP, the membrane permeant analogue of catalase polyethyleneglycol-catalase (PEG-catalase), PP2, an inhibitor of Src kinase, and by wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3-kinase. CGJ stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species and the N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-, PP2- and wortmannin-sensitive formation of NO in endothelial cells. The formation of NO was associated with a redox-sensitive and time-dependent phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. CONCLUSIONS: CGJ induces endothelium-dependent relaxations of coronary arteries, which involve a NO-mediated component and also, to a minor extent, an EDHF-mediated component. In addition, CGJ-induced NO formation is due to the redox-sensitive activation of Src kinase with the subsequent PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS.

Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jan 15;73(2):404-13

Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release.

BACKGROUND: Moderate red wine consumption is inversely associated with coronary ischemia, and both red wine and purple grape juice (PGJ) contain flavonoids with antioxidant and antiplatelet properties believed to be protective against cardiovascular events. Acute cardiac events are also associated with decreased platelet-derived nitric oxide (NO) release. In this study, the effects of PGJ and PGJ-derived flavonoids on platelet function and platelet NO production were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Incubation of platelets with dilute PGJ led to inhibition of aggregation, enhanced release of platelet-derived NO, and decreased superoxide production. To confirm the in vivo relevance of these findings, 20 healthy subjects consumed 7 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of PGJ for 14 days. Platelet aggregation was inhibited after PGJ supplementation, platelet-derived NO production increased from 3.5+/-1.2 to 6.0+/-1.5 pmol/10(8) platelets, and superoxide release decreased from 29.5+/-5.0 to 19.2+/-3.1 arbitrary units (P<0.007 and P<0.05, respectively). alpha-Tocopherol levels increased significantly after PGJ consumption (from 15.6+/-0.7 to 17.6+/-0.9 micromol/L; P<0.009), and the plasma protein-independent antioxidant activity increased by 50.0% (P<0.05). Last, incubation of platelets with select flavonoid fractions isolated from PGJ consistently attenuated superoxide levels but had variable effects on whole-blood aggregation, platelet aggregation, and NO release. CONCLUSIONS: Both in vitro incubation and oral supplementation with PGJ decrease platelet aggregation, increase platelet-derived NO release, and decrease superoxide production. These findings may be a result of antioxidant-sparing and/or direct effects of select flavonoids found in PGJ. The suppression of platelet-mediated thrombosis represents a potential mechanism for the beneficial effects of purple grape products, independent of alcohol consumption, in cardiovascular disease.

Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2792-8

Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.

BACKGROUND: In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, P<0.001). After ingestion of grape juice, lag time increased by 34.5% (P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term ingestion of purple grape juice improves FMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.

Circulation. 1999 Sep 7;100(10):1050-5

Comparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adults.

BACKGROUND: Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of flavonoids, which have greater antioxidant efficacy in vitro than does alpha-tocopherol; however, the efficacies of flavonoids and alpha-tocopherol in vivo have not been compared. OBJECTIVE: We compared the in vivo antioxidant efficacy of CGJ with that of alpha-tocopherol in healthy adults. DESIGN: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d (n = 17) or 10 mL CGJ. kg(-1). d(-1) (n = 15) for 2 wk. Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity, plasma protein carbonyls, urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, and resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation were measured before and after supplementation as markers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress. RESULTS: After supplementation, plasma alpha-tocopherol increased 92% in subjects who received alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.001); plasma total and conjugated phenols increased 17% (P < 0.01) and 22% (P < 0.001), respectively, in subjects who received CGJ. There was a significant change in plasma triacylglycerols in both groups, but the concentrations were within the normal range. CGJ supplementation was associated with significantly higher triacylglycerols than was alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Both supplementation regimens significantly increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (P < 0.001) and LDL lag time (P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the LDL oxidation rate (P < 0.01), with no significant difference in effectiveness. Protein carbonyl concentrations in native plasma decreased 20% after CGJ supplementation, which was a significantly different response than that after alpha-tocopherol supplementation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy adults, 10 mL CGJ. kg(-1). d(-1) increased serum antioxidant capacity and protected LDL against oxidation to an extent similar to that obtained with 400 IU alpha-tocopherol/d but decreased native plasma protein oxidation significantly more than did alpha-tocopherol. CGJ flavonoids are potent antioxidants that may protect against oxidative stress and reduce the risk of free radical damage and chronic diseases.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1367-74

Grape polyphenols reduce blood pressure and increase flow-mediated vasodilation in men with metabolic syndrome.

We evaluated the effects of grape polyphenols in individuals classified with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men (n = 24) aged 30-70 y were randomly assigned to consume either a freeze-dried grape polyphenol powder (GRAPE) or a placebo for 30 d in a double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 3-wk washout period. Participants were asked to maintain their usual diet and physical activity during the study and abstain from consuming polyphenol-rich foods. MetS criteria including blood pressure (BP) and markers of vascular endothelial function including brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), plasma total nitrite + nitrate (NOx) to estimate NO production, plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured at the end of each dietary period. Systolic BP (P < 0.0025) and plasma sICAM-1 concentrations (P < 0.025) were lower, whereas the FMD response was higher (P < 0.0001), during the GRAPE compared with the placebo period. In addition, changes in sVCAM-1 concentrations between periods were positively correlated with changes in systolic BP (r = 0.45; P < 0.05). Although NOx concentrations did not differ between periods, changes in systolic BP were negatively correlated with changes in NOx concentrations (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), indicating the vasodilating properties of NO. Other MetS variables did not differ between the GRAPE and placebo periods. These results suggest that GRAPE polyphenols may potentiate vasorelaxation and reduce BP and circulating cell adhesion molecules, resulting in improvements in vascular function.

J Nutr. 2012 Sep;142(9):1626-32

Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial.

Many of the flavonoids found in grapes and grape products such as juice or wine have been known to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory and arterial relaxing effects either in vitro, in animal studies and in human trials. This study was designed to test the effect of Concord grape juice consumption on altering blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Forty subjects were given 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day of either Concord grape juice (CGJ) or a calorie-matched placebo drink every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured on weeks 0, 4 and 8. Compared to baseline, in the CGJ group systolic BP was reduced on average by 7.2 mm Hg (p = 0.005) and diastolic BP was reduced on average by 6.2 mm Hg (p = 0.001) at the end of 8 weeks. Comparable changes in the group getting the placebo product were -3.5 mm Hg (NS) and -3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.05) Consuming Concord grape juice, which is high in polyphenolic compounds, may favorably affect BP in hypertensive individuals.

Biofactors. 2004;22(1-4):145-7

Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans.

Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75 +/- 1.55 microm versus after supplementation: 70.25 +/- 1.31 microm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

Mutat Res. 2003 Aug 28;529(1-2):77-86

Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort.

Although there is evidence from studies of prostate cancer cell lines and rodent models that several supplements may have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, or other anticancer properties, few epidemiologic studies have examined the association between nonvitamin, nonmineral, “specialty” supplement use and prostate cancer risk. Participants, 50-76 yr, were 35,239 male members of the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort who were residents of western Washington state, and who completed an extensive baseline questionnaire in 2000-2002. Participants responded about their frequency (days/wk) and duration (yr) of specialty supplement uses. 1,602 incident invasive prostate cancers were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. Multivariate-adjusted hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Any use of grapeseed supplements was associated with a 41% (HR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.86) reduced risk of total prostate cancer. There were no associations for use of chondroitin, coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucosamine, or saw palmetto. Grapeseed may be a potential chemopreventive agent; however, as current evidence is limited, it should not yet be promoted for prevention of prostate cancer.

Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(4):573-82

Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Concord grape juice contains polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signalling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure and vascular pathology in individuals with CVD, and consumption of such flavonoid-containing foods is associated with a reduced risk for dementia. In addition, preliminary animal data have indicated improvement in memory and motor function with grape juice supplementation, suggesting potential for cognitive benefit in ageing humans. In this initial investigation of neurocognitive effects, we enrolled twelve older adults with memory decline but not dementia in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with Concord grape juice supplementation for 12 weeks. We observed significant improvement in a measure of verbal learning and non-significant enhancement of verbal and spatial recall. There was no appreciable effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms and no effect on weight or waist circumference. A small increase in fasting insulin was observed for those consuming grape juice. These preliminary findings suggest that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline and establish a basis for more comprehensive investigations to evaluate potential benefit and assess mechanisms of action.

Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(5):730-4

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