Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Oct 2018

Garlic extract, Gastritis, Melatonin, and Menopause

Garlic extract, Gastritis, Melatonin, and Menopause

Garlic extract

Garlic and Heart Disease.

BACKGROUND: Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic’s effects and safety. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. METHODS: We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. CONCLUSION: We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further.

J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):416S-421S.

The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial.

BACKGROUND: Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFa, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. CONCLUSION: Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation, and other cardiovascular markers in patients with elevated levels. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable with a high safety profile as a stand-alone or adjunctive antihypertensive treatment.

Integr Blood Press Control. 2016 Jan 27;9:9-21.

Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review.

Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficacy of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic.

Nutr J. 2002 Nov 19;1:4.

Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

BACKGROUND: Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVES: We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. METHODS: We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. RESULTS: Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):389S-396S.

Beneficial effects of aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 on vascular elasticity and endothelial function: the FAITH randomized clinical trial.

OBJECTIVE: Aged garlic extract (AGE) is associated with a significant decrease in atherosclerotic plaque progression and endothelial function improvement. Similarly, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has significant beneficial effects on endothelial function. A stressful lifestyle is a well-known risk factor for the presence and progression of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the effect of AGE plus CoQ10 on vascular elasticity measured by pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and endothelial function measured by digital thermal monitoring (DTM) in firefighters. METHODS: Sixty-five Los-Angeles County firefighters who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, double-blinded randomized trial. The firefighters were randomized to four tablets of AGE (300 mg/tablet) plus CoQ10 (30 mg/tablet) or placebo. The participants underwent quarterly visits and 1-year follow-up. PWV and DTM were measured at baseline and at the 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, cardiovascular risk factors, PWV, and DTM between the AGE/CoQ10 and placebo groups at baseline (P > 0.5). At 1-y, PWV and DTM significantly improved in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). After an adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and statin therapy, the mean decrease in vascular stiffness (PWV) was 1.21 m/s in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P = 0.005). Similarly, the mean increase in the area under the temperature curve, the DTM index of endothelial function, was 31.3 in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The combination of AGE and CoQ10 was independently associated with significant beneficial effects on vascular elasticity and endothelial function in firefighters with high occupational stress, highlighting the important role of AGE and CoQ10 in atherosclerotic prevention of such individuals.

Nutrition. 2013 Jan;29(1):71-5

Randomized trial evaluating the effect of aged garlic extract with supplements versus placebo on adipose tissue surrogates for coronary atherosclerosis progression.

AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT volumes were measured on CAC scans. PAT was calculated as: intrathoracic adipose tissue-EAT. SAT was defined as the volume of fat depot anterior to the sternum and posterior to the vertebra. PaAT was defined as fat depot around the descending aorta. RESULTS: At 1 year, the increase in EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT was significantly lower in the AGE+S as compared with the placebo group (P<0.05). The odds ratios of increase in EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT were 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.90], 0.72 (95% CI: 0.45-0.93), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98), and 0.87 (CI: 0.52-0.98), respectively, compared with the placebo group, which even remained significant (all P<0.05) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and statin therapy and BMI. CONCLUSION: This study shows that AGE+S is associated with favorable effects on reducing the progression rate of adipose tissue volumes.

Coron Artery Dis. 2018 Jun;29(4):325-328.

Aged garlic extract suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

SCOPE: Chronic inflammation plays a major role in the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. To clarify the mode of action of aged garlic extract (AGE) to retard atherosclerosis, we investigated whether AGE suppresses the inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE-KO mice were fed standard diet with or without 3% AGE for 12 wk. AGE feeding inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic lesion by 27% and reduced the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 ), a marker of platelet activation, in serum by 39 and 33%, respectively, compared to ApoE-KO mice without AGE treatment. AGE treatment also decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), a major stimulus inducing CRP production, in the liver by 35%. AGE decreased the level of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) by 60% and almost doubled the level of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in the liver. CONCLUSION: The anti-atherosclerotic effect of AGE involves the suppression of inflammation by reducing the serum level of CRP and TXB2 , and the protein level of TNF-a and IRAK4, and increasing AMPK activity in liver.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Oct;61(10).

Aged garlic extract exerts endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect on rat aorta by increasing nitric oxide production.

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown that aged garlic extract (AGE) is effective in reducing blood pressure of hypertensive patients. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of AGE on the aorta and its mechanism of action in order to clarify the blood pressure-lowering action of AGE. METHODS: The vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in isolated rat aortic rings. After aortic rings were contracted by 3 × 10-6M norepinephrine (NE) for 30min, AGE and other test drugs were added to the aortic rings. All results were expressed as percentages of the maximal NE-induced contraction. RESULTS: AGE induced the concentration-dependent vasorelaxation of isolated rat aortic rings that had been precontracted with norepinephrine. The effect of AGE was severely impaired in aortic rings lacking endothelium. In addition, the effect of AGE was inhibited by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor and a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger. Moreover, AGE treatment of aorta significantly increased the NO production. When various constituents of AGE were tested, the vasorelaxation of aorta was observed only in the presence of L-arginine, a substrate of NOS. CONCLUSION: AGE causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aorta via stimulation of NO production and that L-arginine in AGE serves as a key agent for NOS-mediated NO production.

Phytomedicine. 2017 Jan 15;24:56-61.


Effect of N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc (Z-103) on healing and hydrocortisone-induced relapse of acetic acid ulcers in rats with limited food-intake-time.

In the healing test of acetic acid ulcers in rats with limited food-intake-time, Z-103 given, p.o., at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg, twice a day, for 14 consecutive days from the day after acetic acid injection not only reduced the size and depth of the ulcers, but also promoted the regeneration of the defective mucosa. In the hydrocortisone-induced relapse test of acetic acid ulcers in rats with limited food-intake-time, Z-103 given, p.o., twice a day, at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 20 consecutive days from the 40th day after the acid injection strongly prevented the exfoliation of the regenerated mucosa. Cimetidine (100 mg/kg x 2/day, p.o.), like Z-103, showed a marked relapse-preventive action in addition to the healing-promoting action. However, it was more effective on the healing. Gefarnate (300 mg/kg x 2/day, p.o.) markedly reduced the size and depth of the ulcers and strongly prevented the steroid-induced relapse, but showed no apparent effect on the regeneration of the defective mucosa. These results suggest that Z-103 may be a new therapeutic agent sharing both healing-promoting and relapse-preventive actions on gastric ulcers.

Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990 Apr;52(4):513-21.

[Studies on anti-ulcer effects of a new compound, zinc L-carnosine (Z-103)].

We investigated the anti-ulcer effects of zinc L-carnosine (Z-103) using several acute experimental models of gastric and duodenal lesions in rats. Effects of Z-103 on various gastric functions, e.g., antacid (in vitro), anti-pepsin (in vitro), gastric secretion, mucosal potential difference (PD) and mucus contents were also examined. Z-103 given orally prevented development of gastric lesions induced by water immersion stress, histamine, HCl-aspirin, HCl-ethanol and also duodenal ulcers induced by mepirizole in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro, Z-103 had a greater antacid effect than sodium bicarbonate; and moreover, the potency of its anti-peptic action (IC50 = 8.7 mM) was higher than those of several other drugs (sodium bicarbonate, sucrose sulfate and aceglutamide aluminum). Intragastric treatment of Z-103 (100 mg/kg alone tended to increase PD, and it also significantly inhibited the decrease in PD induced by aspirin. In addition, pretreatment with Z-103 at 10 and 30 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly prevented the decrease in mucus contents in the gastric mucosa and also mucosal lesions by oral administration of ethanol. On the other hand, Z-103 was not so effective on both basal (pylorus-ligation preparation) and histamine-stimulated gastric secretion (Heidenhain pouch preparation). These results suggest that Z-103 is useful for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers in humans.

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1990 May;95(5):257-69.

Residence time of polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) in the rat stomach and adhesiveness to ulcerous sites.

Polaprezinc, an insoluble zinc complex of L-carnosine, exhibits anti-ulcer effects by acting directly on mucosal lesions. The disposition of polaprezinc in the stomach was studied to clarify the usefulness of its structure as an insoluble complex. The time courses of 14C-radioactivity in the gastric contents and gastric tissues were parallel to those of 65Zn after oral administration of a mixture of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc (14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc) to rats. The gastric contents of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc were greater than those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4. Mean residence times (MRT) of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc in the stomach were almost the same (ca. 2 hr), and they were double those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4. In gastric tissues, the area under the concentration curves (AUC0-8 hr) of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc were 1.7 times greater than those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4, respectively. After administration of 14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc to rats with acetic acid-induced ulcers, 14C and 65Zn-radioactivities in the ulcerous sites were very similar and greater than those of 14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc dissolved in acid. In conclusion, polaprezinc is retained in the stomach longer and adheres to the ulcerous sites more than zinc or L-carnosine. The characteristics of this compound may arise from its insolubility and contribute to its strong pharmacological action.

Jpn J Pharmacol. 1995 Apr;67(4):271-8.

Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils—a study using intravital videomicroscopy.

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori colonization evokes gastric mucosal inflammation and an extensive increase in lipid peroxides and glutathione in Mongolian gerbils. Zinc and its derivative, polaprezinc, have been reported to be potent antioxidants in gastric mucosa. AIM: To examine the effect of polaprezinc on gastric mucosal oxidative inflammation in H. pylori-colonized Mongolian gerbils. METHODS: Sixty-eight male Mongolian gerbils were orally inoculated with H. pylori (ATCC43504, 5 x 10(8) CFUs/gerbil; H. pylori group) and 35 gerbils were inoculated with the culture media (control group). Twenty-two gerbils in the H. pylori and 13 gerbils in the control group were fed with diets containing polaprezinc (0.06%, 100 mg/kg, 10 times the usual clinical dose) (H. pylori + polaprezinc group, polaprezinc group). The remaining gerbils were fed a standard laboratory chow diet. Neutrophil infiltration, assessed histologically and by the activity of myeloperoxidase, the contents of CXC-chemokine (GRO/CINC-1-like protein) and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, was evaluated in each group 12 weeks after the inoculation. Separately, gastric mucosal leucocyte activation and capillary perfusion were also assessed using intravital microscopy 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the inoculation. RESULTS: In all H. pylori-inoculated animals, the bacterial infection persisted throughout the experimental period. Gastric mucosal lesion formation in the H. pylori group was significantly inhibited in the H. pylori + polaprezinc group. Elevated levels of myeloperoxidase activity, GRO/CINC-1 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the H. pylori group at 12 weeks were attenuated significantly by polaprezinc treatment. Enhanced levels of venular leucocyte activation observed in the H. pylori group were attenuated significantly in the H. pylori + polaprezinc group during both the early phase (2 weeks) and late phase (12 weeks). CONCLUSION: Polaprezinc inhibited H. pylori-associated gastric mucosal oxidative inflammation, including initial micro-vascular leucocyte activation, in Mongolian gerbils.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 May;15(5):715-25.

Ulcerogenic and healing impairing actions of monochloramine in rat stomachs: effects of zinc L-carnosine, polaprezinc.

Effects of a novel zinc compound (polaprezinc), N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc, on the mucosal ulcerogenic and healing impairing responses induced by monochloramine (NH2Cl) were examined in rat stomach. Oral administration of NH2Cl (> 60 mM) produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in unanesthetized rat stomachs with a marked increase of thiobarbituric acid reactants (TBAR). Pretreatment of the animals with polaprezinc (3 approximately 30 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition against gastric ulcerogenic and TBAR responses induced by NH2Cl (120 mM). Likewise, mucosal exposure to NH4OH (60 mM) in urethane anesthetized stomachs made ischemic by bleeding from the carotid artery (1 ml per 100 g body w.t.) resulted in severe gastric lesions. This ulcerogenic response caused NH4OH plus ischemia was also attenuated by prior application of polaprezinc as well as taurine (25 mg/ml, 1 ml). On the other hand, the healing of gastric mucosal lesions induced by NH2Cl occurred more slowly than of ethanol-induced lesions, and the latter was significantly delayed by the repeated administration of NH2Cl. Polaprezinc (> 10 mg/kg, p.o.) given twice daily for 7 days not only accelerated the healing of NH2Cl-induced gastric lesions but also antagonized the delayed healing of ethanol-induced lesions in the presence of NH2Cl as well. Polaprezinc showed a scavenging action against NH2Cl in vitro. These results suggest that NH2Cl caused deleterious action on the healing of pre-existing acute lesions as well as irritating action to the mucosa in the rat stomach. Polaprezinc not only protects the stomach against injury caused by NH2Cl but also promotes healing of NH2Cl-induced gastric lesions as well as the delayed healing of ethanol-induced lesions caused by NH2Cl. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these actions of polaprezinc remain unknown, they may be partly attributable to a scavenging action of this agent against NH2Cl.

J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999 Jun;50(2):183-95.

Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro.

BACKGROUND: Polaprezinc has been shown to exert an anti-oxidant property in a tube experiment, protect gastric mucosa from experimental ulcerations in vivo, and accelerate the healing of gastric ulcer in humans. AIM: To examine a possible protective effect of polaprezinc on oxidant-mediated injury in primary monolayer cultures of rat gastric fundic mucosa. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. Whether or not polaprezinc exerts an antioxidant property was investigated by determining the effect of this agent on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury. The effects of polaprezinc on superoxide (O2-. ) generation as well as on ethanol (EtOH)-induced injury were also examined. Generation of O2-. was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. RESULTS: H2O2 caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release. The dose-response curve of 51Cr release by H2O2 shifted to the right in the presence of polaprezinc. Polaprezinc, at submillimolar concentrations, prevented H2O2-induced 51Cr release. EtOH also caused a dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release, which was prevented by the addition of polaprezinc. The incubation of cells with EtOH caused an increase in cytochrome c reduction, as the concentrations of EtOH increased. Polaprezinc inhibited EtOH-induced cytochrome c reduction. Protection by polaprezinc was microscopically associated with the prevention of monolayer disruption. CONCLUSIONS: Polaprezinc is antioxidative and directly protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through its antioxidant properties in vitro. This finding may provide the theoretical basis for the usage of an antiulcer drug with antioxidant properties for the treatment of gastric inflammation, such as that induced by ethanol.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Feb;13(2):261-9.

Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection.

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with a 7-day triple therapy containing lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin, as a treatment for Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive patients suffering from dyspeptic symptoms with H. pylori infection were randomly allocated to one of two regimens: one group (LAC; n = 31) received lansoprazole 30 mg b.d., amoxycillin 500 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 400 mg b.d. for 7 days. The other group (LACP; n = 35) received the LAC regimen plus polaprezinc 150 mg b.d. for 7 days. H. pylori status was evaluated by rapid urease test, histology and culture at entry and 4 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Five patients did not complete the treatment: no follow-up endoscopy was performed on two patients in the LAC group; one patient in the LAC group and two in the LACP group had their treatment stopped due to severe diarrhoea. By per protocol analysis, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 24 of the 28 evaluable patients (86%; 95% CI: 72-100%) after LAC therapy, and in 33 of the 33 evaluable patients (100%) after LACP therapy (P < 0.05). On intention-to-treat analysis, the rates of eradication were 24 of 31 patients (77%; 95% CI: 62-93%) in the LAC group, and 33 of 35 patients (94%; 95% CI: 86-100%) in the LACP group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 7-day triple therapy with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin is effective in H. pylori eradication, but this regimen is significantly improved by the addition of polaprezinc.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Apr;13(4):483-7.

Polaprezinc (Zinc L-carnosine) is a potent inducer of anti-oxidative stress enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 - a new mechanism of gastric mucosal protection.

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is implicated in cytoprotection in various organs. We tested a possibility that polaprezinc (PZ), an anti-ulcer drug, could induce HO-1 in the gastric mucosa. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were intragastrically administered PZ. Gastric expression of HO-1 was assessed by real time RT-PCR and western blotting, and localization of HO-1 was observed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The levels of HO-1 mRNA were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of HO-1 mRNA were increased 4-fold by PZ at the dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h as compared with control levels. The levels of immunoreactive HO-1 were increased 3-fold at 6 h. Signals for HO-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity were detected strongly in the surface gastric mucosal cells and moderately in the gastric macrophages. Treatment with an HO-1 inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) significantly worsened the HCl-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions and increased the apoptosis of mucosal cells. Mucosal lesions were decreased by pretreatment with PZ, while they were increased by co-administration with SnMP. These data indicate for the first time that PZ is an effective inducer of HO-1 in the stomach. PZ-induced HO-1 functions as a part of the mucosal protective effects of PZ.

J Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jul;110(3):285-94.


prevention and treatment for osteopenia, osteoporosis, and periodontal disease and for use in bone-grafting procedures.

An important role for melatonin in bone formation and restructuring has emerged, and studies demonstrate the multiple mechanisms for these beneficial actions. Statistical analysis shows that even with existing osteoporotic therapies, bone-related disease, and mortality are on the rise, creating a huge financial burden for societies worldwide. These findings suggest that novel alternatives need to be developed to either prevent or reverse bone loss to combat osteoporosis-related fractures. The focus of this review describes melatonin’s role in bone physiology and discusses how disruption of melatonin rhythms by light exposure at night, shift work, and disease can adversely impact on bone. The signal transduction mechanisms underlying osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and coupling with one another are discussed with a focus on how melatonin, through the regulation of RANKL and osteoprotegerin synthesis and release from osteoblasts, can induce osteoblastogenesis while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Also, melatonin’s free-radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of this indoleamine are discussed as yet an additional mechanism by which melatonin can maintain one’s bone health, especially oral health. The clinical use for melatonin in bone-grafting procedures, in reversing bone loss due to osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in managing periodontal disease is discussed.

J Pineal Res. 2014 Mar;56(2):115-25.

Biological effects of melatonin on osteoblast/osteoclast cocultures, bone, and quality of life: Implications of a role for MT2 melatonin receptors, MEK1/2, and MEK5 in melatonin-mediated osteoblastogenesis.

The Melatonin Osteoporosis Prevention Study (MOPS) demonstrated that nightly melatonin resulted in a time-dependent decrease in equilibrium ratios of serum osteoclasts and osteoblasts in perimenopausal women. This study examines mechanisms related to the ratios of osteoblasts and osteoclasts using coculture models (transwell or layered) of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs). Human MSC/PBMC cocultures exposed to melatonin in osteogenic (OS+) medium for 21 days induced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization; however, only in layered cocultures did melatonin inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Melatonin effects were mediated through MT2 melatonin receptors, MEK1/2, and MEK5. In layered but not transwell cocultures, melatonin increased OPG:RANKL ratios by inhibiting RANKL, suggesting that contact with osteoclasts during osteoblastogenesis inhibits RANKL secretion. Melatonin modulated expression of ERK1/2, ERK5, b1 integrin, GLUT4, and IRb that was dependent upon the type of coculture; however, in both cultures, melatonin increased RUNX2 and decreased PPARg expression, indicating a role for metabolic processes that control osteogenic vs adipogenic cell fates of MSCs. Furthermore, melatonin also has osteoblast-inducing effects on human adipose-derived MSCs. In vivo, one-year nightly melatonin (15 mg/L) given to neu female mice in their drinking water increased pErk1/2, pErk5, Runx2, and Opg and Rankl levels in bone consistent with melatonin’s already reported bone-enhancing effects. Finally, analysis of daily logs from the MOPS demonstrated a significant improvement in mood and perhaps sleep quality in women receiving melatonin vs placebo. The osteoblast-inducing, bone-enhancing effects of melatonin and improvement in quality of life suggest that melatonin is a safe and effective bone loss therapy.

J Pineal Res. 2018 Apr;64(3).

Melatonin and the skeleton.

Melatonin may affect bone metabolism through bone anabolic as well as antiresorptive effects. An age-related decrease in peak melatonin levels at nighttime is well documented, which may increase bone resorption and bone loss in the elderly. In vitro, melatonin reduces oxidative stress on bone cells by acting as an antioxidant. Furthermore, melatonin improves bone formation by promoting differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) into the osteoblastic cell linage. Bone resorption is reduced by increased synthesis of osteoprogeterin (OPG), a decoy receptor that prevents receptor activator of NK-kB ligand (RANKL) in binding to its receptor. Moreover, melatonin is believed to reduce the synthesis of RANKL preventing further bone resorption. In ovariectomized as well as nonovariectomized rodents, melatonin has shown beneficial effects on bone as assessed by biochemical bone turnover markers, DXA, and µCT scans. Furthermore, in pinealectomized animals, bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly decreased compared to controls, supporting the importance of sufficient melatonin levels. In humans, dysfunction of the melatonin signaling pathway may be involved in idiopathic scoliosis, and the increased fracture risk in nighttime workers may be related to changes in the circadian rhythm of melatonin. In the so-far only randomized study on melatonin treatment, no effects were, however, found on bone turnover markers. In conclusion, melatonin may have beneficial effects on the skeleton, but more studies on humans are warranted in order to find out whether supplementation with melatonin at bedtime may preserve bone mass and improve bone biomechanical competence.

Osteoporos Int. 2013 Dec;24(12):2919-27.

Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01), as BMD increased by 0.5% in the 1 mg/day group (P = 0.55) and by 2.3% (P < 0.01) in the 3 mg/day group. In the melatonin group, trabecular thickness in tibia increased by 2.2% (P = 0.04), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the spine, by 3.6% (P = 0.04) in the 3 mg/day. Treatment did not significantly affect BMD at other sites or levels of bone turnover markers; however, 24-hr urinary calcium was decreased in response to melatonin by 12.2% (P = 0.02). In conclusion, 1-yr treatment with melatonin increased BMD at femoral neck in a dose-dependent manner, while high-dose melatonin increased vBMD in the spine. Further studies are needed to assess the mechanisms of action and whether the positive effect of nighttime melatonin will protect against fractures.

J Pineal Res. 2015 Sep;59(2):221-9.

Reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in response to 1 year of melatonin treatment in postmenopausal women: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

OBJECTIVE: Apart from regulating the circadian rhythm, melatonin exerts a variety of actions in the living organism. Among these functions, melatonin is believed to have a positive effect on body weight and energy metabolism. So far, the evidence for this relies mainly on animal models. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of melatonin on body composition, lipid and glucose metabolism in humans. DESIGN/METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomized 81 postmenopausal women to 1 year of treatment with melatonin (1 or 3 mg nightly) or placebo. Body composition was measured by DXA. Measures were obtained at baseline and after 1 year of treatment along with leptin, adiponectin and insulin. Markers of glucose homeostasis were measured at the end of the study. RESULTS: In response to treatment, fat mass decreased in the melatonin group by 6·9% (95% CI: 1·4%; 12·4%, P = 0·02) compared to placebo. A borderline significant increase in lean mass of 5·2% was found in the melatonin group compared to placebo (3·3%, (IQR:-1·7; 6·2) vs -1·9%, (IQR: -5·7; 5·8), P = 0·08). After adjusting for BMI, lean mass increased by 2·6% (95% CI: 0·1; 5·0, P = 0·04) in the melatonin group. Changes in body weight and BMI did not differ between groups. Adiponectin increased borderline significantly by 21% in the melatonin group compared to placebo (P = 0·08). No significant changes were observed for leptin, insulin or markers of glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a possibly beneficial effect of melatonin on body composition and lipid metabolism as 1 year of treatment reduces fat mass, increases lean mass and is associated with a trend towards an increase in adiponectin.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Mar;84(3):342-7.

Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night.

This review article discusses recent work on the melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and integration of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and the consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LAN). The antiproliferative effects of the circadian melatonin signal are mediated through a major mechanism involving the activation of MT(1) melatonin receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. In estrogen receptor (ERa+) human breast cancer cells, melatonin suppresses both ERa mRNA expression and estrogen-induced transcriptional activity of the ERa via MT(1) -induced activation of G(ai2) signaling and reduction of 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of additional members of the steroid hormone/nuclear receptor super-family, enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, expression/activation of telomerase, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. The anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions of melatonin involve the blockade of p38 phosphorylation and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of human breast cancer xenografts via another critical pathway involving MT(1) -mediated suppression of cAMP leading to blockade of linoleic acid uptake and its metabolism to the mitogenic signaling molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). Down-regulation of 13-HODE reduces the activation of growth factor pathways supporting cell proliferation and survival. Experimental evidence in rats and humans indicating that LAN-induced circadian disruption of the nocturnal melatonin signal activates human breast cancer growth, metabolism, and signaling provides the strongest mechanistic support, thus far, for population and ecological studies demonstrating elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LAN.

J Pineal Res. 2011 Oct;51(3):259-69.

Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude rats.

The increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers has been postulated to result from the suppression of pineal melatonin production by exposure to light at night. Exposure of rats bearing rat hepatomas or human breast cancer xenografts to increasing intensities of white fluorescent light during each 12-hour dark phase (0-345 microW/cm2) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of nocturnal melatonin blood levels and a stimulation of tumor growth and linoleic acid uptake/metabolism to the mitogenic molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Venous blood samples were collected from healthy, premenopausal female volunteers during either the daytime, nighttime, or nighttime following 90 minutes of ocular bright, white fluorescent light exposure at 580 microW/cm2 (i.e., 2,800 lx). Compared with tumors perfused with daytime-collected melatonin-deficient blood, human breast cancer xenografts and rat hepatomas perfused in situ, with nocturnal, physiologically melatonin-rich blood collected during the night, exhibited markedly suppressed proliferative activity and linoleic acid uptake/metabolism. Tumors perfused with melatonin-deficient blood collected following ocular exposure to light at night exhibited the daytime pattern of high tumor proliferative activity. These results are the first to show that the tumor growth response to exposure to light during darkness is intensity dependent and that the human nocturnal, circadian melatonin signal not only inhibits human breast cancer growth but that this effect is extinguished by short-term ocular exposure to bright, white light at night. These mechanistic studies are the first to provide a rational biological explanation for the increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers.

Cancer Res. 2005 Dec 1;65(23):11174-84.


Long-term efficacy and safety of the special extract ERr 731 of Rheum rhaponticum in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of ERr 731 in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms. DESIGN: This was a multicenter, prospective, 48-week observational study (OS) (OS I) followed by a 48-week OS II in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms taking ERr 731. Of 109 women participating in a previous randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT), 39 women receiving ERr 731 and 41 women receiving placebo participated in OS I. Fifty-one women continued to take ERr 731 in OS II (23 women from the ERr 731 group and 28 women from the placebo group). The primary outcome criterion for long-term efficacy of ERr 731 was the change in the Menopause Rating Scale II score after 48 and 96 weeks. Several efficacy and safety parameters were also assessed. RESULTS: Women in the ERr 731 group in the RCT experienced a further decrease in their symptoms during OS I. Women who received placebo during the RCT and started taking ERr 731 in OS I reported a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms. After 18 weeks in OS I, their symptom scores were comparable to those of women who had taken ERr 731 for 12 weeks during the RCT. The symptom scores further decreased slightly in all women during OS II. At the end of OS II, all women had on average less than 1.4 slight hot flushes per day. There was no clinically relevant change in safety parameters, and no adverse events were observed with relation to the long-term use of ERr 731. CONCLUSIONS: ERr 731 is effective and safe in the long-term treatment of menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.

Menopause. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):117-31.

Efficacy and safety of a special extract of Rheum rhaponticum (ERr 731) in perimenopausal women with climacteric complaints: a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of the special extract ERr 731 from the roots of Rheum rhaponticum compared to placebo in perimenopausal women with climacteric complaints. DESIGN: A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in which 109 women with climacteric complaints received either one enteric-coated tablet of ERr 731 (n = 54) or placebo (n = 55) daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcome criterion for efficacy was the change in Menopause Rating Scale II (MRS II) total score after 12 weeks. Other efficacy assessments analyzed number and severity of hot flushes, menopause-specific quality of life, number of bleeding/spotting days, and treatment outcome. RESULTS: By 12 weeks, the MRS II total score and each MRS II symptom significantly decreased in the ERr 731 group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.0001). After 4 weeks, ERr 731 also significantly decreased the number and severity of hot flushes (P < 0.0001). After 12 weeks, the overall menopause-specific quality of life was significantly better in women treated with ERr 731 compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Treatment outcome assessed by investigators and participants was better in the ERr 731 group, and ERr 731 was better tolerated than placebo. There were no differences in gynecological findings including endometrial biopsies, bleeding, weight, blood pressure, pulse, and laboratory safety parameters between the treatment groups. No adverse events were classified as being related to the investigational medication. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, ERr 731 significantly reduces the occurrence and severity of climacteric complaints in perimenopause. It is also safe and well tolerated.

Menopause. 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):744-59.

The special extract ERr 731 of the roots of Rheum rhaponticum decreases anxiety and improves health state and general well-being in perimenopausal women.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the special extract ERr 731 from the roots of Rheum rhaponticum compared with placebo on anxiety, health state, and general well-being in perimenopausal women. DESIGN: This study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, in which 109 perimenopausal women with climacteric complaints and anxiety received either 1 enteric coated tablet of ERr 731 (n=54) or placebo (n=55) daily for 12 weeks. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale II, the Women’s Health Questionnaire, and the Psychological General Well-Being Index were used to measure anxiety, health state, and subjective psychological well-being. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that ERr 731 is highly effective in reducing anxiety in perimenopausal women compared with placebo. After 12 weeks, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale total score decreased significantly with ERr 731 (from 27.5+/-6.8 to 9.4+/-4.2 points) compared with placebo (from 25.1+/-6.0 to 21.6+/-8.6 points). ERr 731 also reduced the Hamilton Anxiety Scale factor scores for somatic and psychic anxiety. After 12 weeks, a reduction in the severity of anxiety from “moderate” or “severe” to “slight” was observed in 33 of 39 ERr 731 women completing the double-blind phase, which correlated well with the reduction in number and severity of hot flushes. This was reflected by a high rate of ERr 731 women reporting a marked improvement in health state and general well-being. CONCLUSIONS: ERr 731 is an effective medication for women with menopause-related anxiety and improves their health state and general well-being.

Menopause. 2007 Mar-Apr;14(2):270-83.

Confirmation of the efficacy of ERr 731 in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, the special extract ERr 731 of Rheum rhaponticum significantly reduced vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms associated with perimenopause. This trial was conducted to confirm the efficacy of ERr 731. DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial with 112 perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms receiving either 1 enteric-coated tablet of ERr 731 (n = 56) or placebo (n = 56) daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcome criterion for efficacy of ERr 731 compared to placebo was the change of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) total score from day 0 to day 84. Other efficacy assessments analyzed included the number and severity of hot flushes, individual symptoms of the MRS, treatment outcome, and various safety parameters. RESULTS: By 12 weeks, ERr 731 caused a highly significant reduction of the MRS total score from 27.0 +/- 4.7 points to 12.4 +/- 5.3 points when compared to the placebo-induced decrease from 27.0 +/- 5.3 points to 24.0 +/- 6.2 points (P < .0001). A significant reduction in each individual MRS item score, in hot flushes and the hot flush weekly weighted score, together with a marked improvement in treatment outcome were also observed (P < .0001). These results confirm the efficacy of ERr 731 in alleviating menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Fourteen adverse events were reported in total: 11 by 5 women receiving ERr 731 and 3 by 3 women receiving placebo. ERr 731 was well tolerated by the majority of the women. CONCLUSION: ERr 731 was confirmed to be effective for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in perimenopause.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):24-34.

Efficacy of the special extract ERr 731 from rhapontic rhubarb for menopausal complaints: a 6-month open observational study.

BACKGROUND: The special extract ERr 731 from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb has been in widespread use in Germany since 1993, and the current regulations have required an evaluation of its risk:benefit ratio in daily use. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy and tolerability ofERr 731 in menopausal women in everyday practice. DESIGN: Three hundred sixty-three menopausal women with menopausal symptoms were enrolled at 70 German gynecological practices and received ERr 731 for 6 months. Women visited the practices for a baseline assessment and after 3 and 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome criterion was the change of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) total score after 6 months. Other assessments included compliance, tolerability, health-related quality of life, and occurrence of adverse events. RESULTS: After 6 months of treatment with ERr 731 in 252 women, there was a significant decrease of the MRS total score from 14.5 points at baseline to 6.5 points (P<.0001). The reduction of the MRS score was more pronounced in women with a score of > or =18 points at baseline. One tablet per day was sufficient to reduce the symptoms significantly in the majority of women. The health-related quality of life improved markedly. A good or very good treatment outcome was reported by the majority of the participating women. One adverse event was reported that was assessed as having no relation to ERr 731 intake. CONCLUSION: ERr 731 is a well-tolerated and safe medication for the successful treatment of menopausal symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):32-8.

The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study.

BACKGROUND: The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. METHOD: We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. RESULTS: The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% - compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. CONCLUSION: The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2004 Nov 22;2:67.

Estrogen Receptor Ligands: A Review (2013-2015).

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from tissue growth maintenance to reproduction. Their action is mediated through ER nuclear receptors. Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor, ERa and ERb, exist and exhibit distinct cellular and tissue distribution patterns. In humans, both receptor subtypes are expressed in many cells and tissues, and they control key physiological functions in various organ systems. Estrogens attract great attention due to their wide applications in female reproductive functions and treatment of some estrogen-dependent cancers and osteoporosis. This paper provides a general review of ER ligands published in international journals patented between 2013 and 2015. The broad physiological profile of estrogens has attracted the attention of many researchers to develop new estrogen ligands as therapeutic molecules for various clinical purposes. After the discovery of the ERβ receptor, subtype-selective ligands could be used to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce adverse side effects, based on the different distributions and relative levels of the two ER subtypes in different estrogen target tissues. Therefore, recent literature has focused on selective estrogen ligands as highly promising agents for the treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Estrogen receptors are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological functions in humans. Selective estrogen ligands are highly promising targets for treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies of ER ligands based on small molecules indicate that many different structural scaffolds may provide high-affinity compounds, provided that some basic structural requirements are present.

Sci Pharm. 2016 Apr 13;84(3):409-427.

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