Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Apr 2009

Whey protein

Scientifically reviewed by: Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, on January 2021.

Vitamin D and sunlight: strategies for cancer prevention and other health benefits.

Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. The major source of vitamin D for most humans is sensible sun exposure. Factors that influence cutaneous vitamin D production include sunscreen use, skin pigmentation, time of day, season of the year, latitude, and aging. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the measure for vitamin D status. A total of 100 IU of vitamin D raises blood level of 25(OH)D by 1 ng/mL. Thus, children and adults who do not receive adequate vitamin D from sun exposure need at least 1000 IU/D vitamin D. Lack of sun exposure and vitamin D deficiency have been linked to many serious chronic diseases, including autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, and deadly cancers. It is estimated that there is a 30 to 50% reduction in risk for developing colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer by either increasing vitamin D intake to least 1,000 IU/D vitamin D or increasing sun exposure to raise blood levels of 25(OH)D >30 ng/mL. Most tissues in the body have a vitamin D receptor. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, is made in many different tissues, including colon, prostate, and breast. It is believed that the local production of 1,25(OH)(2)D may be responsible for the anticancer benefit of vitamin D. Recent studies suggested that women who are vitamin D deficient have a 253% increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, and women who ingested 1,500 mg/d calcium and 1,100 IU/D vitamin D(3) for 4 yr reduced risk for developing cancer by >60%.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Sep;3(5):1548-54

Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND: Laboratory studies have shown that n-3 fatty acids inhibit and n-6 fatty acids stimulate prostate tumor growth, but whether the dietary intake of these fatty acids affects prostate cancer risk in humans remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the association between intakes of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic (AA; 20:4n-6) acids and prostate cancer risk. DESIGN: A cohort of 47,866 US men aged 40-75 y with no cancer history in 1986 was followed for 14 y. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2,965 new cases of total prostate cancer were ascertained, 448 of which were advanced prostate cancer. ALA intake was unrelated to the risk of total prostate cancer. In contrast, the multivariate relative risks (RRs) of advanced prostate cancer from comparisons of extreme quintiles of ALA from nonanimal sources and ALA from meat and dairy sources were 2.02 (95% CI: 1.35, 3.03) and 1.53 (0.88, 2.66), respectively. EPA and DHA intakes were related to lower prostate cancer risk. The multivariate RRs of total and advanced prostate cancer from comparisons of extreme quintiles of the combination of EPA and DHA were 0.89 (0.77, 1.04) and 0.74 (0.49, 1.08), respectively. LA and AA intakes were unrelated to the risk of prostate cancer. The multivariate RR of advanced prostate cancer from a comparison of extreme quintiles of the ratio of LA to ALA was 0.62 (0.45, 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Increased dietary intakes of ALA may increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, EPA and DHA intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16

Cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in prostate cancer

Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and involved in its development and progression by facilitating inflammatory response, reducing cell apoptosis, increasing angiogenesis and damaging DNA oxidation. Selective Cox-2 inhibitors suppress PCa growth through various channels and therefore have a promising application value in the management of prostate cancer.

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008 Nov;14(11):1031-4

Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane.

Isothiocyanates are found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage. Epidemiologic studies suggest that cruciferous vegetable intake may lower overall cancer risk, including colon and prostate cancer. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables and is especially high in broccoli and broccoli sprouts. SFN has proved to be an effective chemoprotective agent in cell culture, carcinogen-induced and genetic animal cancer models, as well as in xenograft models of cancer. Early research focused on the “blocking activity” of SFN via Phase 2 enzyme induction, as well as inhibition of enzymes involved in carcinogen activation, but there has been growing interest in other mechanisms of chemoprotection by SFN. Recent studies suggest that SFN offers protection against tumor development during the “post-initiation” phase and mechanisms for suppression effects of SFN, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction are of particular interest. In humans, a key factor in determining the efficacy of SFN as a chemoprevention agent is gaining an understanding of the metabolism, distribution and bioavailability of SFN and the factors that alter these parameters. This review discusses the established anti-cancer properties of SFN, with an emphasis on the possible chemoprevention mechanisms. The current status of SFN in human clinical trials also is included, with consideration of the chemistry, metabolism, absorption and factors influencing SFN bioavailability.

Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):291-304

Serum alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in relation to prostate cancer risk in a prospective study.

The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study demonstrated a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to daily alpha-tocopherol supplementation. We examined baseline serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol to compare their respective associations with prostate cancer risk. From the ATBC Study cohort of 29,133 Finnish men, 50-69 years old, we randomly selected 100 incident prostate cancer case patients and matched 200 control subjects. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the serum tocopherols (measured by high-performance liquid chromatography) using logistic regression models. All P values were two-sided. Odds ratios for the highest versus the lowest tertiles were 0.49 (95% CI = 0.24 to 1.01, P(trend) = .05) for alpha-tocopherol and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31 to 1.06, P(trend) = .08) for gamma-tocopherol. Further analyses indicated that the association of high serum tocopherols with low prostate cancer risk was stronger in the alpha-tocopherol-supplemented group than in those not receiving alpha-tocopherol. Participants with higher circulating concentrations of the major vitamin E fractions, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, had similarly lower prostate cancer risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 2;97(5):396-9

The effect of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and their carboxyethyl hydroxychroman metabolites on prostate cancer cell proliferation.

It is known that gamma-tocopherol inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation via down-regulation of cyclin-related signalling but tocopherol and tocotrienol metabolites with a shortened phytyl chain, carboxyethyl hydroxychromans, were not previously investigated as anti-proliferative agents. In this study, the effect of the two main tocopherols, namely, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, and their corresponding metabolites (alpha- and gamma-carboxyethyl hydroxychromans) was studied on proliferation and cyclin D1 expression of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3. The hydrosoluble vitamin E analogues Trolox and alpha-tocopherol succinate were also tested. The most effective inhibitors of PC-3 proliferation were gamma-tocopherol and gamma-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman. Their effect was discernable at 1 microM and reached a plateau at concentrations > or = 10 microM with maximal inhibition values ranging between 70 and 82%. alpha-Tocopherol, alpha-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman, and the analogue Trolox were much less effective; a weak effect was observed for concentrations < or = 10 microM and a maximal inhibition of less than 45% was found at 50 microM concentration. PC-3 cells showed higher inhibition, particularly by the gamma derivatives, than HTB-82 and HECV cells. Tocopherols and carboxyethyl hydroxychromans exerted an inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 expression parallel to the retardation of cell growth. gamma-Carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and gamma-tocopherol showed effects also upstream of the cyclin modulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of cyclin D1 expression by gamma-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman was competed for by alpha-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman. In conclusion, this study shows that carboxyethyl hydroxychroman metabolites are as effective as their vitamin precursors to inhibit PC-3 growth by specific down-regulation of cyclin expression, with the gamma forms being the most effective ones. Although the inhibition of PC-3 cell growth and diminution of cyclin expression are clearly visible, more subtle mechanistic effects of tocopherols and their corresponding carboxyethyl hydroxychroman metabolites deserve further investigations.

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Mar 1;423(1):97-102

Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

CONTEXT: Secondary analyses of 2 randomized controlled trials and supportive epidemiologic and preclinical data indicated the potential of selenium and vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selenium, vitamin E, or both could prevent prostate cancer and other diseases with little or no toxicity in relatively healthy men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial [SELECT]) of 35,533 men from 427 participating sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico randomly assigned to 4 groups (selenium, vitamin E, selenium + vitamin E, and placebo) in a double-blind fashion between August 22, 2001, and June 24, 2004. Baseline eligibility included age 50 years or older (African American men) or 55 years or older (all other men), a serum prostate-specific antigen level of 4 ng/mL or less, and a digital rectal examination not suspicious for prostate cancer. INTERVENTIONS: Oral selenium (200 microg/d from L-selenomethionine) and matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and matched selenium placebo, selenium + vitamin E, or placebo + placebo for a planned follow-up of minimum of 7 years and a maximum of 12 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prostate cancer and prespecified secondary outcomes, including lung, colorectal, and overall primary cancer. RESULTS: As of October 23, 2008, median overall follow-up was 5.46 years (range, 4.17-7.33 years). Hazard ratios (99% confidence intervals [CIs]) for prostate cancer were 1.13 (99% CI, 0.95-1.35; n = 473) for vitamin E, 1.04 (99% CI, 0.87-1.24; n = 432) for selenium, and 1.05 (99% CI, 0.88-1.25; n = 437) for selenium + vitamin E vs 1.00 (n = 416) for placebo. There were no significant differences (all P>.15) in any other prespecified cancer end points. There were statistically nonsignificant increased risks of prostate cancer in the vitamin E group (P = .06) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the selenium group (relative risk, 1.07; 99% CI, 0.94-1.22; P = .16) but not in the selenium + vitamin E group. CONCLUSION: Selenium or vitamin E, alone or in combination at the doses and formulations used, did not prevent prostate cancer in this population of relatively healthy men.

JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39-51

The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk.

BACKGROUND: Animal studies indicate that omega-6 fatty acids promote and omega-3 fatty acids inhibit tumor development. This pilot study was designed to evaluate whether these fatty acids are associated with human prostate cancer. METHODS: Levels of erythrocyte membrane omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were determined for 67 incident prostate cancer cases and 156 population-based controls. RESULTS: Prostate cancer risk was increased in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of alpha-linolenic acid (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.8, trend P = 0.01). Positive associations were also observed with higher levels of linoleic acid (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.9-4.8) and total omega-6 fatty acids (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.0-5.4). CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with other studies showing that linoleic and total omega-6 fatty acids increase risk of prostate cancer. Contrary to animal studies, alpha-linolenic acid was also positively associated with risk. Further research will be required to clarify the role of these fatty acids in human prostate cancer.

Prostate. 2001 Jun 1;47(4):262-8

Involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism and EGF receptor in neurotensin-induced prostate cancer PC3 cell growth.

Dietary fats, which increase the risk of prostate cancer, stimulate release of intestinal neurotensin (NT), a growth-promoting peptide that enhances the formation of arachidonic acid metabolites in animal blood. This led us to use PC3 cells to examine the involvement of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the growth effects of NT, including activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and downstream kinases (ERK, AKT), and stimulation of DNA synthesis. NT and EGF enhanced [3H]-AA release, which was diminished by inhibitors of PLA2 (quinacrine), EGFR (AG1478) and MEK (U0126). NT and EGF phosphorylated EGFR, ERK and AKT, and stimulated DNA synthesis. These effects were diminished by PLA2 inhibitor (quinacrine), general LOX inhibitors (NDGA, ETYA), 5-LOX inhibitors (Rev 5901, AA861), 12-LOX inhibitor (baicalein) and FLAP inhibitor (MK886), while COX inhibitor (indomethacin) was without effect. Cells treated with NT and EGF showed an increase in 5-HETE levels by HPLC. PKC inhibitor (bisindolylmaleimide) blocked the stimulatory effects of NT, EGF and 5-HETE on DNA synthesis. We propose that 5-LOX activity is required for NT to stimulate growth via EGFR and its downstream kinases. The mechanism may involve an effect of 5-HETE on PKC, which is known to facilitate MEK-ERK activation. NT may enhance 5-HETE formation by Ca2+-mediated and ERK-mediated activation of DAG lipase and cPLA2. NT also upregulates cPLA2 and 5-LOX protein expression. Thus, the growth effects of NT and EGF involve a feed-forward system that requires cooperative interactions of the 5-LOX, ERK and AKT pathways.

Regul Pept. 2006 Jan 15;133(1-3):105-14

Activation of the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha counteracts the proliferative effect of fatty acids on prostate cancer cells: crucial role of 5-lipoxygenase.

The incidence of prostate carcinoma is very low in Eastern countries, such as Japan, suggesting that life style conditions may play a crucial role in the development of this pathology. Dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids, have been shown to stimulate the proliferation of prostate cancer cells after being converted into 5-HETE by means of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway. Blockade of 5-LOX activity has been proposed as an attractive target for the prevention of the mitogenic action of dietary fats on prostate cancer. The 5-LOX gene has been shown to carry a response element for the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha (for its RORalpha1 isoform in particular) in its promoter region. We attempt to clarify whether activation of RORalpha might modulate the expression of 5-LOX, thus interfering with the mitogenic activity of fatty acids in prostate cancer cells. We show that in androgen-independent DU 145 prostate cancer cells, LA, AA and their metabolite 5-HETE exert a strong stimulatory action on cell proliferation. This effect is completely counteracted by the simultaneous treatment of the cells with a non redox inhibitor of 5-LOX activity. We then demonstrate that: i) RORalpha, and specifically its RORalpha1 isoform, is expressed in DU 145 cells; ii) activation of RORalpha, by means of the thiazolidinedione derivative CGP 52,608 (the synthetic RORalpha activator), significantly reduces 5-LOX expression, both at mRNA (as evaluated by comparative RT-PCR) and at protein (as investigated by Western blot analysis) level (this was confirmed by the reduced activity of 5-LOX in CGP 52,608 treated cells); and iii) the treatment of DU 145 cells with CGP 52,608 completely abrogated the proliferative action of both LA and AA. These results have been confirmed in another androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line (PC3). Our data indicate that, by decreasing the expression of 5-LOX, activation of RORalpha might interfere with the mitogenic activity of fatty acids on prostate cancer. We have shown previously that CGP 52,608 reduces the proliferation and the metastatic behavior of DU 145 cells. These observations indicate that the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha might be considered as a molecular target for the development of new chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic strategies for prostate carcinoma.

Int J Cancer. 2004 Oct 20;112(1):87-93

Arachidonic acid stimulates prostate cancer cell growth: critical role of 5-lipoxygenase.

Arachidonic acid (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid), a member of the omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, was found to be an effective stimulator of human prostate cancer cell growth in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Selective blockade of the different metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid (e.g. ibuprofen for cyclooxygenase, SKF-525A for cytochrome P-450, baicalein and BHPP for 12-lipoxygenase, AA861 and MK886 for 5-lipoxygenase, etc.) revealed that the growth stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid is inhibited by the 5-lipoxygenase specific inhibitors, AA861 and MK886, but not by others. Addition of the eicosatetraenoid products of 5-lipoxygenase (5-HETEs) showed stimulation of prostate cancer cell growth similar to that of arachidonic acid, whereas the leukotrienes were ineffective. Moreover, the 5-series of eicosatetraenoids could reverse the growth inhibitory effect of MK886. Finally, prostate cancer cells fed with arachidonic acid showed a dramatic increase in the production of 5-HETEs which is effectively blocked by MK886. These experimental observations suggest that arachidonic acid needs to be metabolized through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway to produce 5-HETE series of eicosatetraenoids for its growth stimulatory effects on human prostate cancer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jun 18;235(2):418-23

Elevated 12-lipoxygenase mRNA expression correlates with advanced stage and poor differentiation of human prostate cancer.

OBJECTIVES. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in males in the United States. The mortality is due mainly to distant metastasis. Therefore, predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer patients is an important clinical problem. Previously, we demonstrated that a 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) metabolite of arachidonic acid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, enhances the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells and that a 12-LOX-selective inhibitor [N-benzyl-N-hydroxy-5-phenylpentanamide] reduces experimental metastasis in animal model systems. In this study, we investigated the potential of 12-LOX as a predictor for the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. METHODS. The mRNA expression level of 12-LOX in 122 matching prostate normal and cancerous tissues were measured by quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction. Possible association between 12-LOX expression and histologic grade, pathologic and clinical stage, margin positivity, age, and race was analyzed. RESULTS. 12-LOX mRNA levels were elevated in cancer cells and the expression associated with poor differentiation and invasiveness of prostate cancer. Overall, 46 (38%) of 122 evaluable patients showed elevated levels of 12-LOX mRNA in prostate cancer tissues compared with the matching normal tissues. A statistically significantly greater number of cases were found to have an elevated level of 12-LOX among T3, high grade, and surgical margin-positive than T2, intermediate, and low grade, and surgical margin-negative prostatic adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS. Our data suggest that elevation of 12-LOX mRNA expression occurs more frequently in advanced stage, high-grade prostate cancer and that 12-LOX may serve as an indicator for progression and prognosis of prostate cancer. This enzyme also may be a novel target for the development of anti-invasive and antimetastatic agents.

Urology. 1995 Aug;46(2):227-37

Plant-derived polyphenols attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor production in murine microglia and macrophages.

Lipopolysaccharides released during bacterial infections induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lead to complications such as neuronal damage in the CNS and septic shock in the periphery. While the initial infection is treated by antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents would be advantageous add-on medications. In order to identify such compounds, we have compared 29 commercially available polyphenol-containing plant extracts and pure compounds for their ability to prevent LPS-induced up-regulation of NO production. Among the botanical extracts, bearberry and grape seed were the most active preparations, exhibiting IC(50) values of around 20 mug/mL. Among the pure compounds, IC(50) values for apigenin, diosmetin and silybin were 15, 19 and 12 muM, in N-11 murine microglia, and 7, 16 and 25 muM, in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, respectively. In addition, these flavonoids were also able to down-regulate LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor production. Structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids demonstrated three distinct principles: (i) flavonoid-aglycons are more potent than the corresponding glycosides, (ii) flavonoids with a 4’-OH substitution in the B-ring are more potent than those with a 3’-OH-4’-methoxy substitution, (iii) flavonoids of the flavone type (with a C2=C3 double bond) are more potent than those of the flavanone type (with a at C2-C3 single bond).

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Apr;52(4):427-38

Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical.

Quercetin, a member of the flavonoids family, is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. It is ubiquitously present in foods including vegetables, fruit, tea and wine as well as countless food supplements and is claimed to exert beneficial health effects. This includes protection against various diseases such as osteoporosis, certain forms of cancer, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases but also against aging. Especially the ability of quercetin to scavenge highly reactive species such as peroxynitrite and the hydroxyl radical is suggested to be involved in these possible beneficial health effects. Consequently, numerous studies have been performed to gather scientific evidence for these beneficial health claims as well as data regarding the exact mechanism of action and possible toxicological aspects of this flavonoid. The purpose of this review is to evaluate these studies in order to elucidate the possible health-beneficial effects of the antioxidant quercetin. Firstly, the definitions as well as the most important aspects regarding free radicals, antioxidants and oxidative stress will be discussed as background information. Subsequently, the mechanism by which quercetin may operate as an antioxidant (tested in vitro) as well as the potential use of this antioxidant as a nutraceutical (tested both ex vivo and in vivo) will be discussed.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 May 13;585(2-3):325-37

Quercetin: potentials in the prevention and therapy of disease.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quercetin is discussed since several decades as a multipotent bioflavonoid with great potential for the prevention and treatment of disease. In the current review, we present the most recent findings on quercetin with regard to the pharmacology, the in-vitro and in-vivo effects in different cell systems and animal models, and the clinical effects in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Quercetin bioavailability has been underestimated in the past and can be improved by food matrix components or particular delivery forms. Among the biological effects of particular relevance, the antihypertensive effects of quercetin in humans and the improvement of endothelial function should be emphasized. Together with its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, the latter mainly mediated through the inhibition of cytokines and nitric oxide, quercetin is a candidate for preventing obesity-related diseases. Most exiting are the findings that quercetin enhances physical power by yet unclear mechanisms. The anti-infectious and immunomodulatory activities of quercetin might be related to this effect. SUMMARY: Quercetin is a most promising compound for disease prevention and therapy; however, many of the effects still need confirmation by human intervention trials.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Nov;11(6):733-40

Quercetin inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokines through attenuation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in HMC-1 human mast cell line.

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mast cells induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines with immune regulatory properties. We investigated the effect of quercetin on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cell line, HMC-1. METHODS: HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). RESULTS: Quercetin decreased the gene expression and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Quercetin attenuated PMACI-induced activation of NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that quercetin may suitable for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.

Inflamm Res. 2007 May;56(5):210-5

Quercetin regulates

Th1/Th2 balance in a murine model of asthma.

Quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids in studies and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high Quercetin content. Quercetin has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. However, its anti-allergic effect in the Th1/Th2 immune response was poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that T-bet and GATA-3 were master Th1 and Th2 regulatory transcription factors. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether Quercetin regulates Th1/Th2 cytokine production, T-bet and GATA-3 gene expression in OVA-induced asthma model mice. Quercetin reduced the increased levels of IL-4, Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized and -challenged mice. The other side, it increased IFN-gamma, Th1 cytokine production in Quercetin administrated mice. We also examined to ascertain whether Quercetin could influence Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity. The administration of Quercetin before the last airway OVA challenge resulted in a significant inhibition of all asthmatic reactions. Accordingly, this study may provide evidence that Quercetin plays a critical role in the amelioration of the pathogenetic process of asthma in mice. These findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of Quercetin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma, and also broaden current perspectives in our understanding of the immunopharmacological functions of Quercetin.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Dec 4

Anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and isoquercitrin in experimental murine allergic asthma.

OBJECTIVE: Eosinophils and cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin and isoquercitrin in a murine model of asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were immunized (ovalbumin/aluminum hydroxide, s. c.), followed by two intranasal ovalbumin challenges. From day 18 to day 22 after the first immunization, the mice received daily gavages of isoquercitrin (15 mg/kg) or quercetin (10 mg/kg). Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered as a positive control. Leucocytes were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood and pulmonary parenchyma at 24 h after the last ovalbumin challenge. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) was analyzed in BALF and lung homogenates. RESULTS: In animals receiving isoquercitrin or quercetin, eosinophil counts were lower in the BALF, blood and lung parenchyma. Neutrophil counts in blood and IL-5 levels in lung homogenate were lower only in isoquercitrin-treated mice. No alterations in mononuclear cell numbers were observed. CONCLUSION: Quercetin and isoquercitrin are effective eosinophilic inflammation suppressors, suggesting a potential for treating allergies.

Inflamm Res. 2007 Oct;56(10):402-8

Quercetin inhalation inhibits the asthmatic responses by exposure to aerosolized-ovalbumin in conscious guinea-pigs.

Effects of quercetin inhalation on immediate (IAR), late-phase (LAR) and late late-phase (LLAR) asthmatic responses by exposure to aerosolized-ovalbumin (AOA) (2w/v% in saline, inhalation for 3 min) were studied in conscious guinea-pigs sensitized with AOA. We measured specific airway resistance (sRaw), and recruitment of leukocytes, histamine and protein contents and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Effects of quercetin (10 mg/mL, inhalation for 2 min) compared with cromolyn sodium, salbutamol, and dexamethasone inhalations, respectively. Quercetin inhalation decreased sRaw by 57.15 +/- 3.82% in IAR, 57.72 +/- 7.28% in LAR, and 55.20 +/- 5.69% in LLAR compared with AOA-inhaled control. Salbutamol inhalation (5 mg/mL) significantly inhibited sRaw in IAR, but inhalations of cromolyn sodium (10 mg/mL) and dexamethasone (5 mg/mL) significantly inhibited sRaw in IAR, LAR and LLAR, respectively. Inhibitory activity of quercetin inhalation on sRaw was similar to effect of its oral administration (10 mg/kg) in asthmatic responses. Quercetin (10 mg/mL, inhalation for 2 min) significantly decreased histamine and protein contents, PLA2 activity, and recruitments of leukocytes in BALF and also improved slightly infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils in histopathological survey. Its anti-asthmatic activity was similar to cromolyn sodium and dexamethasone.

Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jun;31(6):771-8

Ingestion of quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in humans.

BACKGROUND: Quercetin, a flavonoid present in the human diet, which is found in high levels in onions, apples, tea and wine, has been shown previously to inhibit platelet aggregation and signaling in vitro. Consequently, it has been proposed that quercetin may contribute to the protective effects against cardiovascular disease of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. OBJECTIVES: A pilot human dietary intervention study was designed to investigate the relationship between the ingestion of dietary quercetin and platelet function. METHODS: Human subjects ingested either 150 mg or 300 mg quercetin-4’-O-beta-D-glucoside supplement to determine the systemic availability of quercetin. Platelets were isolated from subjects to analyse collagen-stimulated cell signaling and aggregation. RESULTS: Plasma quercetin concentrations peaked at 4.66 microm (+/- 0.77) and 9.72 microm (+/- 1.38) 30 min after ingestion of 150-mg and 300-mg doses of quercetin-4’-O-beta-D-glucoside, respectively, demonstrating that quercetin was bioavailable, with plasma concentrations attained in the range known to affect platelet function in vitro. Platelet aggregation was inhibited 30 and 120 min after ingestion of both doses of quercetin-4’-O-beta-D-glucoside. Correspondingly, collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of total platelet proteins was inhibited. This was accompanied by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, components of the platelet glycoprotein VI collagen receptor signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence of the relatively high systemic availability of quercetin in the form of quercetin-4’-O-beta-D-glucoside by supplementation, and implicates quercetin as a dietary inhibitor of platelet cell signaling and thrombus formation.

J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Dec;2(12):2138-45

Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease.

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that acute intake of red wine improves endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. It is not clear, however, which constituents of red wine are responsible for this effect. We examined whether acute intake of a red grape polyphenol extract has a positive effect on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation. METHODS: We recruited 30 male patients with coronary heart disease. They were randomly assigned either to a red grape polyphenol extract (600 mg) dissolved in 20 ml of water (n = 15) or 20 ml of water (placebo) (n = 15). The extract of grapes contained 4.32 mg epicatechin, 2.72 mg catechin, 2.07 mg gallic acid, 0.9 mg trans-resveratrol, 0.47 mg rutin, 0.42 mg epsilon-viniferin, 0.28 mg, p-coumaric acid, 0.14 mg ferulic acid and 0.04 mg quercetin per gram. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was evaluated after reactive hyperemia induced by cuff obstruction of the forearm, using high-resolution ultasonography. Particularly, flow-mediated dilatation was measured after fasting and 30, 60 and 120 min after the intake of the grape extract or placebo. RESULTS: Intake of the red grape polyphenol extract caused an increase in flow-mediated dilatation, peaking at 60 min, which was significantly higher than the baseline values (4.52+/-1.34 versus 2.6+/-1.5%; P < 0.001) and the corresponding values at 60 min after the intake of placebo (4.52+/-1.34 versus 2.64+/-1.8%, P < 0.001). There was no change in FMD values after the intake of placebo throughout the whole duration of the study. CONCLUSION: Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. These results could probably, at least partly, explain the favorable effects of red wine on the cardiovascular system.

Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Dec;12(6):596-600

Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

Epidemiological studies report that quercetin, an antioxidant flavonol found in apples, berries, and onions, is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Quercetin supplementation also reduces blood pressure in hypertensive rodents. The efficacy of quercetin supplementation to lower blood pressure in hypertensive humans has never been evaluated. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients. We then determined whether the antihypertensive effect of quercetin is associated with reductions in systemic oxidant stress. Men and women with prehypertension (n = 19) and stage 1 hypertension (n = 22) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to test the efficacy of 730 mg quercetin/d for 28 d vs. placebo. Blood pressure (mm Hg, systolic/diastolic) at enrollment was 137 +/- 2/86 +/- 1 in prehypertensives and 148 +/- 2/96 +/- 1 in stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Blood pressure was not altered in prehypertensive patients after quercetin supplementation. In contrast, reductions in (P < 0.01) systolic (-7 +/- 2 mm Hg), diastolic (-5 +/- 2 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressures (-5 +/- 2 mm Hg) were observed in stage 1 hypertensive patients after quercetin treatment. However, indices of oxidant stress measured in the plasma and urine were not affected by quercetin. These data are the first to our knowledge to show that quercetin supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Contrary to animal-based studies, there was no quercetin-evoked reduction in systemic markers of oxidative stress.

J Nutr. 2007 Nov;137(11):2405-11

Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (-)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men.

BACKGROUND: Dietary flavonoids may improve endothelial function and ultimately lead to beneficial cardiovascular effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether pure dietary flavonoids can modulate nitric oxide and endothelin-1 production and thereby improve endothelial function. DESIGN: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 12 healthy men was conducted to compare the acute effects of the oral administration of 200 mg quercetin, (-)-epicatechin, or epigallocatechin gallate on nitric oxide, endothelin-1, and oxidative stress after nitric oxide production was assessed via the measurement of plasma S-nitrosothiols and plasma and urinary nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The effects on oxidative stress were assessed by measuring plasma and urinary F(2)-isoprostanes. Plasma and urinary concentrations of quercetin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate were measured to establish the absorption of these flavonoids. RESULTS: Relative to water (control), quercetin and (-)-epicatechin resulted in a significant increase in plasma S-nitrosothiols, plasma nitrite, and urinary nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05), but not in plasma nitrate or urinary nitrite. Epigallocatechin gallate did not alter any of the measures of nitric oxide production. Quercetin and (-)-epicatechin resulted in a significant reduction in plasma endothelin-1 concentration (P < 0.05), but only quercetin significantly decreased the urinary endothelin-1 concentration. None of the 3 treatments significantly changed plasma or urinary F(2)-isoprostane concentrations. Significant increases in the circulating concentrations of the 3 flavonoids were observed (P < 0.05) after the corresponding treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin and (-)-epicatechin, can augment nitric oxide status and reduce endothelin-1 concentrations and may thereby improve endothelial function.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1018-25

Quercetin ameliorates metabolic syndrome and improves the inflammatory status in obese Zucker rats.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of chronic administration of high doses of quercetin on metabolic syndrome abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. For this purpose, obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were used. The rats received a daily dose of quercetin (2 or 10 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle for 10 weeks. Body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded weekly. At the end of the treatment, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free-fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The raised SBP and high plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, FFA, and insulin found in obese Zucker rats were reduced in obese rats that received either of the doses of quercetin assayed. The higher dose also improved the inflammatory status peculiar to this model, as it increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin, reduced NOx levels in plasma, and lowered VAT TNF-alpha production in obese Zucker rats. Furthermore, chronic intake of the higher dose of quercetin enhanced VAT eNOS expression among obese Zucker rats, whereas it downregulated VAT iNOS expression. In conclusion, both doses of quercetin improved dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperinsulinemia in obese Zucker rats, but only the high dose produced antiinflammatory effects in VAT together with a reduction in body weight gain.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Sep;16(9):2081-7

Therapeutic applications of whey protein.

Whey, a protein complex derived from milk, is being touted as a functional food with a number of health benefits. The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide, and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. In addition, whey has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and chelating agent. The primary mechanism by which whey is thought to exert its effects is by intracellular conversion of the amino acid cysteine to glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. A number of clinical trials have successfully been performed using whey in the treatment of cancer, HIV, hepatitis B, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and as an antimicrobial agent. Whey protein has also exhibited benefit in the arena of exercise performance and enhancement.

Altern Med Rev. 2004 Jun;9(2):136-56

Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcopenia (skeletal muscle wasting with aging) is thought to underlie a number of serious age-related health issues. While it may be seen as inevitable, decreasing this gradual loss of muscle is vital for healthy aging. Thus, it is imperative to investigate exercise and nutrition-based strategies designed to build a reservoir of muscle mass as early as possible. RECENT FINDINGS: Elderly individuals are still able to respond to both resistance training and the anabolic signals provided by protein ingestion, provided specific amino acids, such as leucine, are present. Whey proteins are a rich source of these essential amino acids and rapidly elevate plasma amino acids, thus providing the foundations for preservation of muscle mass. Several studies involving supplementation with whey protein have been shown to be effective in augmenting the effects of resistance exercise, particularly when supplementation occurs in the hours surrounding the exercise training. SUMMARY: While further work is required, particularly in elderly people, simple dietary and exercise strategies that may improve the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass will likely result in a decrease in the overall burden of a number of diseases and improve the quality of life as we age.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Jan;11(1):40-4

The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength.

Our purpose was to assess muscular adaptations during 6 weeks of resistance training in 36 males randomly assigned to supplementation with whey protein (W; 1.2 g/kg/day), whey protein and creatine monohydrate (WC; 0.1 g/kg/day), or placebo (P; 1.2 g/kg/day maltodextrin). Measures included lean tissue mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bench press and squat strength (1-repetition maximum), and knee extension/flexion peak torque. Lean tissue mass increased to a greater extent with training in WC compared to the other groups, and in the W compared to the P group (p < .05). Bench press strength increased to a greater extent for WC compared to W and P (p < .05). Knee extension peak torque increased with training for WC and W (p < .05), but not for P. All other measures increased to a similar extent across groups. Continued training without supplementation for an additional 6 weeks resulted in maintenance of strength and lean tissue mass in all groups. Males that supplemented with whey protein while resistance training demonstrated greater improvement in knee extension peak torque and lean tissue mass than males engaged in training alone. Males that supplemented with a combination of whey protein and creatine had greater increases in lean tissue mass and bench press than those who supplemented with only whey protein or placebo. However, not all strength measures were improved with supplementation, since subjects who supplemented with creatine and/or whey protein had similar increases in squat strength and knee flexion peak torque compared to subjects who received placebo.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Sep;11(3):349-64

Whey protein ingestion in elderly persons results in greater muscle protein accrual than ingestion of its constituent essential amino acid content.

It is recognized that both whey protein (WY) and essential amino acids (EAA) are stimuli for muscle protein anabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine if the effects of WY ingestion on muscle protein accrual in elderly persons are due solely to its constituent EAA content. Fifteen elderly persons were randomly assigned to ingest a bolus of either 15 g of WY, 6.72 g of EAA, or 7.57 g of nonessential amino acids (NEAA). We used the leg arteriovenous model to measure the leg phenylalanine balance, which is an index of muscle protein accrual. Phenylalanine balance (nmol x min(-1) kg lean leg mass(-1)) during the 3.5 hours after the bolus ingestion improved in the WY (-216 +/- 14 vs -105 +/- 19; P < .05) but not in the EAA (-203 +/- 21 vs -172 +/- 38; P > .05) or NEAA groups (-203 +/- 19 vs -204 +/- 21; P > .05). The insulin response (uIU x mL(-1) 210 min(-1)) during the same period was lower in both the NEAA (48 +/- 40) and EAA (213 +/- 127) when compared to the WY (1073 +/- 229; P < .05). In conclusion, WY ingestion improves skeletal muscle protein accrual through mechanisms that are beyond those attributed to its EAA content. This finding may have practical implications for the formulation of nutritional supplements to enhance muscle anabolism in older individuals.

Nutr Res. 2008 Oct;28(10):651-8

Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men.

PURPOSE: Creatine supplementation has been shown to enhance muscle strength and power after only 5-7 d in young adults. Creatine supplementation could therefore benefit older individuals because aging is associated with a decrease in muscle strength and explosive power. METHODS: We examined the effects of 7 d of creatine supplementation in normally active older men (59-72 yr) by using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design with repeated measures. After a 3-wk familiarization period to minimize learning effects, a battery of tests was completed on three occasions separated by 7 d (T1, T2, and T3). After T1, subjects were matched and randomly assigned into creatine (N = 10) and placebo (N = 8) groups. After T2, subjects consumed supplements (0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d until T3. All subjects were tested for maximal dynamic strength (one-repetition maximum leg press and bench press), maximal isometric strength (knee extension/flexion), upper- and lower-body explosive power (6 x 10-s sprints on a cycle ergometer), and lower-extremity functional ability (timed sit-stand test and tandem gait test). Body composition was assessed via hydrostatic weighing, and blood samples were obtained to assess renal and hepatic responses and muscle creatine concentrations. RESULTS: No significant increases in any performance measures were observed from T1 to T2 with the exception of isometric right-knee flexion in the placebo group indicating stability in the testing protocols. Significant group-by -time interactions indicated the responses from T2 to T3 were significantly greater (P <or= 0.05) in the creatine compared with the placebo group, respectively, for body mass (1.86 and -1.01 kg), fat-free mass (2.22 and 0.00 kg), maximal dynamic strength (7-8 and 1-2%), maximal isometric strength (9-15 and -6 to 1%), lower-body mean power (11 and 0%), and lower-extremity functional capacity (6-9 and 1-2%). No adverse side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 7 d of creatine supplementation is effective at increasing several indices of muscle performance, including functional tests in older men without adverse side effects. Creatine supplementation may be a useful therapeutic strategy for older adults to attenuate loss in muscle strength and performance of functional living tasks.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Mar;34(3):537-43

Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise.

The effect of a pre-exercise energy sport drink on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise was examined in eight experienced resistance trained men. Subjects were randomly provided either a placebo (P: maltodextrin) or the supplement (S: combination of branched chain amino acids, creatine, taurine, caffeine, and glucuronolactone). Subjects performed 6 sets of no more than 10 repetitions of the squat exercise at 75% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 minutes of rest between sets. Blood draws occurred at baseline pre-exercise, immediately post- (IP), 15 minutes post- (15P), and 30-minutes post (30P) exercise for measurement of serum growth hormone, total and free testosterone, cortisol, and insulin concentrations. Although significant differences were seen only at set 5, the total number of repetitions and training volume tended (p = 0.08) to be higher with S compared to P. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were significantly higher at 15P and IP, respectively, in S compared to P. Results suggest that a pre-exercise energy S consumed 10 minutes before resistance exercise can enhance acute exercise performance by increasing the number of repetitions performed and the total volume of exercise. The enhanced exercise performance resulted in a significantly greater increase in both growth hormone and insulin concentrations, indicating an augmented anabolic hormone response to this pre-exercise S.

J Strength Cond Res. 2008 May;22(3):874-82

Therapeutic considerations of L-glutamine: a review of the literature.

The most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream, L-glutamine fulfills a number of biochemical needs. It operates as a nitrogen shuttle, taking up excess ammonia and forming urea. It can contribute to the production of other amino acids, glucose, nucleotides, protein, and glutathione. Glutamine is primarily formed and stored in skeletal muscle and lungs, and is the principal metabolic fuel for small intestine enterocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. Supplemental use of glutamine, either in oral, enteral, or parenteral form, increases intestinal villous height, stimulates gut mucosal cellular proliferation, and maintains mucosal integrity. It also prevents intestinal hyperpermeability and bacterial translocation, which may be involved in sepsis and the development of multiple organ failure. L-glutamine use has been found to be of great importance in the treatment of trauma and surgery patients, and has been shown to decrease the incidence of infection in these patients. Cancer patients often develop muscle glutamine depletion, due to uptake by tumors and chronic protein catabolism. Glutamine may be helpful in offsetting this depletion; however, it may also stimulate the growth of some tumors. The use of glutamine with cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy seems to prevent gut and oral toxic side-effects, and may even increase the effectiveness of some chemotherapy drugs.

Altern Med Rev. 1999 Aug;4(4):239-48

Glutamine and the immune system.

Glutamine is utilised at a high rate by cells of the immune system in culture and is required to support optimal lymphocyte proliferation and production of cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis is influenced by glutamine availability. Hydrolysable glutamine dipeptides can substitute for glutamine to support in vitro lymphocyte and macrophage functions. In man plasma and skeletal muscle glutamine levels are lowered by sepsis, injury, burns, surgery and endurance exercise and in the overtrained athlete. The lowered plasma glutamine concentrations are most likely the result of demand for glutamine (by the liver, kidney, gut and immune system) exceeding the supply (from the diet and from muscle). It has been suggested that the lowered plasma glutamine concentration contributes, at least in part, to the immunosuppression which accompanies such situations. Animal studies have shown that inclusion of glutamine in the diet increases survival to a bacterial challenge. Glutamine or its precursors has been provided, usually by the parenteral route, to patients following surgery, radiation treatment or bone marrow transplantation or suffering from injury. In most cases the intention was not to stimulate the immune system but rather to maintain nitrogen balance, muscle mass and/or gut integrity. Nevertheless, the maintenance of plasma glutamine concentrations in such a group of patients very much at risk of immunosuppression has the added benefit of maintaining immune function. Indeed, the provision of glutamine to patients following bone marrow transplantation resulted in a lower level of infection and a shorter stay in hospital than for patients receiving glutamine-free parenteral nutrition.

Amino Acids. 1999;17(3):227-41

Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Links and possible mechanisms.

Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma and is utilised at high rates by rapidly dividing cells, including leucocytes, to provide energy and optimal conditions for nucleotide biosynthesis. As such, it is considered to be essential for proper immune function. During various catabolic states including surgical trauma, infection, starvation and prolonged exercise, glutamine homeostasis is placed under stress. Falls in the plasma glutamine level (normal range 500 to 750 mumol/L after an overnight fast) have been reported following endurance events and prolonged exercise. These levels remain unchanged or temporarily elevated after short term, high intensity exercise. Plasma glutamine has also been reported to fall in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus, in diet-induced metabolic acidosis and in the recovery period following high intensity intermittent exercise. Common factors among all these stress states are rises in the plasma concentrations of cortisol and glucagon and an increased tissue requirement for glutamine for gluconeogenesis. It is suggested that increased gluconeogenesis and associated increases in hepatic, gut and renal glutamine uptake account for the depletion of plasma glutamine in catabolic stress states, including prolonged exercise. The short term effects of exercise on the plasma glutamine level may be cumulative, since heavy training has been shown to result in low plasma glutamine levels (< 500 mumol/L) requiring long periods of recovery. Furthermore, athletes experiencing discomfort from the overtraining syndrome exhibit lower resting levels of plasma glutamine than active healthy controls. Therefore, physical activity directly affects the availability of glutamine to the leucocytes and thus may influence immune function. The utility of plasma glutamine level as a marker of overtraining has recently been highlighted, but a consensus has not yet been reached concerning the best method of determining the level. Since injury, infection, nutritional status and acute exercise can all influence plasma glutamine level, these factors must be controlled and/or taken into consideration if plasma glutamine is to prove a useful marker of impending overtraining.

Sports Med. 1998 Sep;26(3):177-91

Plasma amino acid concentrations in the overtraining syndrome: possible effects on the immune system.

Overtraining and long-term exercise are associated with an impairment of immune function. We provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that the supply of glutamine, a key fuel for cells of the immune system, is impaired in these conditions and that this may contribute to immunosuppression. Plasma glutamine concentration was decreased in overtrained athletes and after long-term exercise (marathon race) and was increased after short-term, high intensity exercise (sprinting). Branched chain amino acid supplementation during long-term exercise was shown to prevent this decrease in the plasma glutamine level. Overtraining was without effect on the rate of T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro or on the plasma levels of interleukin-1 and -6, suggesting that immune function is not impaired in this condition. Given the proposed importance of glutamine for cells of the immune system, it is concluded that the decrease in plasma glutamine concentration in overtraining and following long-term exercise, and not an intrinsic defect in T lymphocyte function, may contribute to the immune deficiency reported in these conditions.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992 Dec;24(12):1353-8

Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma glutamine levels can be used as an indicator of exercise-induced stress, and to consider the possible effects of low plasma glutamine concentrations on the immune system. METHODS: We used two exercise regimens: in Trial 1 seven male subjects were randomly stressed on a treadmill at 0, 30%, 60%, 90% and 120% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); in Trial 2 five highly trained male subjects underwent intensive interval training sessions twice daily for ten days, followed by a six-day recovery period. RESULTS: Plasma glutamine concentrations decreased significantly from an average of 1,244 +/- 121 mumol/L to 702 +/- 101 mumol/L after acute exercise at 90% VO2max (P < 0.05) and to 560 +/- 79 mumol/L at 120% VO2max (P < 0.001). Four of the five subjects showed reduced plasma glutamine concentrations by Day 6 of the overload training trial, with all subjects displaying significantly lower glutamine levels by Day 11. However, glutamine levels showed a variable rate of recovery over the six-day recovery period, with two subjects’ levels remaining low by Day 16. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced plasma glutamine concentrations may provide a good indication of severe exercise stress.

Med J Aust. 1995 Jan 2;162(1):15-8