Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Jul 2009


Scientifically reviewed by: Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, on January 2021.

The host cytokine response to Porphyromonas gingivalis is modified by gingipains.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clinical studies indicate that primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are elevated in the gingival crevice around teeth with periodontitis but the secondary cytokines and chemokines, IL-6 and IL-8, are not. The human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) lining the gingival sulcus respond to perturbation by microbes of dental plaque by releasing a wide range of cytokines. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a putative periodontal pathogen, possesses numerous virulence factors some of which directly impact on the host response. In the present study, we sought to determine how P. gingivalis influences the inflammatory cytokine responses. METHODS: HGECs were challenged with P. gingivalis and other putative periodontal pathogens, and the resultant production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Culture supernatants and recombinant human cytokines were challenged with live P. gingivalis wild-type and gingipain-deficient strains and the resultant cytokine profile was assessed by ELISA and Western blot. RESULTS: We show here that primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis result in high levels of IL-1beta but not the related secondary cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. We further demonstrate that cytokine response differences are the result of the action of P. gingivalis proteases, with lysine gingipain being the most effective. CONCLUSION: We conclude that P. gingivalis, through lysine gingipain, can subvert the protective host proinflammatory response by direct cytokine degradation. Changes in the crevicular cytokine profile have consequences in periodontal disease pathogenesis that should be considered in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009 Feb;24(1):11-7

Low-grade inflammation in chronic infectious diseases: paradigm of periodontal infections.

Increasing evidence implicates periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting structures, as a potential risk factor for increased morbidity or mortality for several systemic conditions including cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke), pregnancy complications (spontaneous preterm birth [SPB]), and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies indicate that periodontitis may confer two- and up to sevenfold increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease and premature birth, respectively. Given the recently acquired knowledge that systemic inflammation may contribute in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and may predispose to premature birth, research in the field of periodontics has focused on the potential of this chronic low-grade inflammatory condition to contribute to the generation of a systemic inflammatory phenotype. Consistent with this hypothesis clinical studies demonstrate that periodontitis patients have elevated markers of systemic inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), haptoglobin, and fibrinogen. These are higher in periodontal patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than in patients with AMI alone, supporting the notion that periodontal disease is an independent contributor to systemic inflammation. In the case of adverse pregnancy outcomes, studies on fetal cord blood from SBP babies indicate a strong in utero IgM antibody response specific to several oral periodontal pathogens, which induces an inflammatory response at the fetal-placental unit, leading to prematurity. The importance of periodontal infections to systemic health is further strengthened by pilot intervention trials indicating that periodontal therapy may improve surrogate cardiovascular outcomes, such as endothelial function, and may reduce four- to fivefold the incidence of premature birth. Nevertheless, further research is needed to fully discern the underlying mechanisms by which local chronic infections can have an impact on systemic health, and in this endeavor periodontal disease may serve as an ideal disease model.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1088:251-64

Endotoxemia, immune response to periodontal pathogens, and systemic inflammation associate with incident cardiovascular disease events.

OBJECTIVE: In periodontitis, overgrowth of gram-negative bacteria may cause endotoxemia and systemic inflammation leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We investigated in a prospective study the associations of serum endotoxin, antibodies to periodontal pathogens, and inflammation markers with the risk of incident CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: The FINRISK 1992 cohort of 6051 individuals was followed up for 10 years. We examined 185 incident CVD events and a control cohort of 320 individuals using a prospective case-cohort design. High antibody response to periodontal pathogens independently predicted incident CVD events with hazard ratios (HR, quartile 4 versus quartiles 1 to 3, 95% CI) of 1.87 (1.13 to 3.08). The subjects with a high antibody response and high CRP or interleukin (IL)-6 had multivariate-adjusted HRs of 3.01 (1.27 to 7.09) and 3.11 (1.42 to 6.83) compared with low-responders, respectively. The corresponding HRs for high endotoxin concentration were 1.82 (1.22 to 2.73, alone), 3.92 (1.99 to 7.74, with CRP), 3.54 (1.78 to 7.03, with IL-6), and 2.26 (1.13 to 4.52, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) after adjusting for age and gender. These associations were abolished after adjusting for serum lipids. High endotoxin/HDL ratio, however, had a multivariate-adjusted HR of 1.92 (1.19 to 3.08) for CVD events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the exposure to periodontal pathogens or endotoxin induces systemic inflammation leading to increased risk for CVD.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Jun;27(6):1433-9

Periodontal infection: a potential risk factor for pre-term delivery of low birth weight (PLBW) babies.

Pre-term delivery of low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies is considered a major peri-natal problem in many countries and is contributing substantially to infant mortality and to childhood handicap. There is a reported incidence of pre-term delivery of low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies of 37% of all live births in Pakistan, which has a tremendous impact on health care system in this community. The prevalence of periodontal disease in Pakistan is also very high in all age groups and women of child bearing age (18-34 years) are no exception. Recent studies indicate periodontal infection as a potential independent risk factor for PLBW, and is considered to be 7 times more likely to be associated than any other risk factors. Several postulated mechanisms have been reviewed, including the virulence effects and role of asymptomatic bacteraemia, focusing on the bacterial load in periodontium facilitating its transmission from oral cavity to the uterus. The indication that periodontal disease is a potential risk factor for the delivery of PLBW; a high level of periodontal disease in women of child bearing age and similar high level of PLBW babies in country, calls for further longitudinal investigations that validate a causal relationship between periodontal infection and pre-term delivery of LBW babies in Pakistan. A review of literature and preliminary communication for a planned study is presented.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2005 Oct;55(10):448-52

The relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus.

BACKGROUND: The term “diabetes mellitus” describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes. METHODS: The authors reviewed the literature to identify oral conditions that are affected by diabetes mellitus. They also examined the literature concerning periodontitis as a modifier of glycemic control. RESULTS: Although a number of oral disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, the data support the fact that periodontitis is a complication of diabetes. Patients with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes are at risk of developing oral candidiasis, and the evidence indicates that periodontitis is a risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. Evidence suggests that periodontal changes are the first clinical manifestation of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is an important health care problem. The evidence suggests that oral health care providers can have a significant, positive effect on the oral and general health of patients with diabetes mellitus.

J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Oct;139 Suppl:19S-24S

Efficacy of periodontal treatment on glycaemic control in diabetic patients: A meta-analysis of interventional studies.

AIM: There is growing evidence that periodontal disease may favour the incidence or aggravation of diabetes and its complications. To investigate the issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effect of periodontal therapy on glycaemic control in diabetic patients. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using seven databases (Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, The Cochrane Library, Pascal, IADR Abstracts and Current Contents), with no language restrictions. We followed the QUOROM-recommended standards for improving the quality of reporting meta-analyses of interventional studies. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies, involving 976 subjects altogether, were included in the present systematic review. Of these, nine studies, involving a total of 485 patients, were controlled trials and were included in the meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference in HbA(1c) with the treatment of periodontal disease was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.82). These findings suggest that periodontal treatment could lead to a significant 0.79% (95% CI: 0.19, 1.40) reduction in HbA(1c) level. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis represents the best information available to date that addresses this issue, and suggests that periodontal treatment could improve glycaemic control. Nevertheless, these results need to be viewed with caution because of a lack of robustness, and deficiencies in the design of some of the studies included. A randomized controlled trial with sufficient statistical power would help to confirm the results of this meta-analysis.

Diabetes Metab. 2008 Nov;34(5):497-506

Chronic periodontitis, a significant relationship with acute myocardial infarction.

BACKGROUND: Chronic periodontitis (CP) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The study purposes were to identify the odds of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and CP defined at different thresholds. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 80 subjects with clinically confirmed AMI and 80 matched control subjects with no evidence of cardiovascular disease all receiving a comprehensive periodontal examination. Statistical analysis demonstrated a difference in the proportion of sites with a periodontal probing depth >/=6.0mm (2.7% for non-AMI and 12.1% for AMI group, 95% CI: -2.8 to 0.01, P<0.05) but no difference in the extent of gingival bleeding was found between groups. The odds ratio of having AMI and periodontitis varied between 9.2:1 to 14.1:1 with the greatest odds ratio if bone loss exceeded 4mm at >/=50% of the teeth (OR: 14.1:1, 95% CI: 5.5 to 28.2, P<0.0001). The odds ratio remained significant also when only non-smokers were considered (51 subjects) (OR: 7.0:1, 95% CI: 2.0 to 24.3, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patients who at routine dental visits demonstrate evidence of bone loss around several teeth can predictably be identified as being at risk for future AMI. Such subjects should be referred for medical and periodontal examinations and treatments.

Eur Heart J. 2003 Dec;24(23):2108-15

Periodontal disease is associated with renal insufficiency in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis, a chronic bacterial infection of the oral cavity, is a novel risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the numerous shared risk factors for CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD), we hypothesized that periodontitis also is associated with renal insufficiency in the Dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,537 middle-aged black and white men and women. Periodontitis was determined by using an independent clinically derived definition and categorized as healthy/gingivitis, initial, and severe. Renal

insufficiency is defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for renal insufficiency using healthy/gingivitis as the referent group. RESULTS: A total of 2,276 individuals had initial periodontitis, and 947 individuals had severe periodontal disease. One hundred ten individuals (2%) had a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with healthy/gingivitis, initial and severe periodontal disease were associated with a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 3.24) for initial periodontal disease and an odds ratio of 2.14 for severe disease (95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 3.85) after adjustment for important risk factors for CVD and CKD. Sensitivity analysis showed that initial and severe periodontitis were each associated with an elevated serum creatinine level (men, >1.4 mg/dL [>124 micromol/L]; women, >1.2 mg/dL [>106 micromol/L]; odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 7.76 and odds ratio, 5.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.08 to 13.99, respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show an association of periodontal disease with prevalent renal insufficiency. A prospective study is necessary to determine the exact nature of the observed relationship.

Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Apr;45(4):650-7

Relationship of periodontal infection to serum antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and inflammatory markers in periodontitis patients with coronary heart disease.

Several reports have demonstrated a possible association of periodontal infections with coronary heart disease (CHD) by elevated antibody titre to periodontopathic bacteria in CHD patients compared with non-diseased controls. Although each periodontopathic bacterium may vary in virulence for periodontitis and atherosclerosis, antibody response to multiple bacteria in CHD patients has not been understood fully. Therefore, serum levels of antibody to 12 periodontopathic bacteria together with other atherosclerotic risk markers were compared among 51 patients with CHD, 55 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals. The antibody response was the most prevalent for Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major causative organism, in CHD as well as periodontitis patients. However, antibody positivity was different between CHD and periodontitis if the response was analysed for two different strains of P. gingivalis, namely FDC381 and Su63. While periodontitis patients were positive for both P. gingivalis FDC381 and Su63, a high frequency of antibody positivity for P. gingivalis Su63 but not for FDC381 was observed in CHD patients. The results indicate that the presence of particular periodontopathic bacteria with high virulence may affect atherogenesis. Identifying the virulence factors of P. gingivalis Su63 may gain insight into the new therapeutic modality for infection-induced deterioration of atherosclerosis.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Sep;149(3):445-52

Adherence to a daily flossing regimen in university students: effects of planning when, where, how and what to do in the face of barriers.

OBJECTIVES: Regular (daily) dental flossing is recommended for preventing oral diseases, but adherence is unsatisfactory. Social cognitive theory (SCT) specifies determinants of dental flossing: cognitions about risk, positive and negative outcome expectations and the perceived ability to perform behaviour predict motivation, which in turn predicts behaviour. Recent research suggests that motivation alone may not suffice to predict behaviour, and proposes if-then-planning. This study aims to predict flossing adherence from social cognitive variables and planning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaire data from 157 non-dental university students on flossing, SCT variables and planning were gathered at three measurement points over 6 weeks. Residual floss was used to validate behaviour self-reports. RESULTS: Social cognitive variables and planning correlated significantly with flossing at all times. Discriminant function analysis suggests that after controlling for Time 1 flossing, planning Time 2 (Wilk’s lambda=0.77; p<0.01) is more important in discriminating between adherent and non-adherent participants at Time 3 than Time 1 social cognitive measures. Regression analyses confirmed this result with planning as only predictor of flossing change (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest targeting planning in interventions to increase compliance with flossing recommendations. Implications for such interventions are discussed.

J Clin Periodontol. 2006 Sep;33(9):612-9

Basic aspects of psychodermatology.

Psychodermatological or psychocutaneous disorders are conditions resulting from the interaction between the mind and the skin. There are three major groups of psychodermatological disorders; psychophysiologic disorders, psychiatric disorders with dermatologic symptoms, and dermatologic disorders with psychiatric symptoms. Along with the standard dermatological treatment, majority of these disorders can be treated with cognitive-bihevioral psychotherapy, psychoterapeutic stress-and-anxiety-management technicques and psychotropic drugs. Therefore, understanding of biopsychosocial approaches and liaison approach involving general practice, psychiatrist, dermatologist and psychologist treatment in this field is essential.

Psychiatr Danub. 2008 Sep;20(3):415-8

Neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry of the ‘brain-skin connection’.

The skin offers an ideally suited, clinically relevant model for studying the crossroads between peripheral and systemic responses to stress. A ‘brain-skin connection’ with local neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry underlies the pathogenesis of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, triggered or aggravated by stress. In stressed mice, corticotropin-releasing hormone, nerve growth factor, neurotensin, substance P and mast cells are recruited hierarchically to induce neurogenic skin inflammation, which inhibits hair growth. The hair follicle is both a target and a source for immunomodulatory stress mediators, and has an equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Thus, the skin and its appendages enable the study of complex neuroimmunoendocrine responses that peripheral tissues launch upon stress exposure, as a basis for identifying new targets for therapeutic stress intervention.

Trends Immunol. 2006 Jan;27(1):32-9

Safety update on commonly used psychotropic medications in dermatology.

It is the experience of dermatologists worldwide that a significant proportion of their patient population has underlying psychological components to their dermatologic complaints. Since these patients are often reluctant to see a mental health professional, the effective management of the underlying psychopathology may require the use of psychotropic medications by the dermatologists. This paper aims to update dermatologists on recent safety information on some of the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in psychodermatology. In the process it will also address the implications of these recent safety updates for prescribing clinicians.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2006 Feb;5(2):109-15

Atopic dermatitis and stress? How do emotions come into skin?

It is widely accepted, that stress can induce or exacerbate atopic dermatitis. The physiological mechanisms that mediate this negative influence of stress on atopic dermatitis are not clearly understood. This topic has been actively investigated in recent years focusing on neuroimmunological, psychoendocrinological studies and examination of integrity and function of skin barrier under stress. Different neuropeptides and neurotrophins seem to play an important role in stress-induced neurogenic inflammation and connection of nervous and immune system. Mast cells play a key role in the development of inflammatory reaction to stress. Skin barrier is altered by stress by means of increased cortisol level. Thereby lamellar body secretion is decreased and epidermal expression of antimicrobial peptides (beta-defensin and cathelicidin) is down-regulated. We review recent investigations in this field.

Hautarzt. 2008 Apr;59(4):314-8

The sex steroid precursor DHEA accelerates cutaneous wound healing via the estrogen receptors.

Age-related impaired wound healing states lead to substantial morbidity and cost, with treatment in the USA resulting in an expenditure of over $9 billion per annum. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a ubiquitous adrenal hormone with immunomodulatory properties whose levels decline significantly with advanced age in humans. Conversion of DHEA locally to downstream steroid hormones leads to estrogenic and/or androgenic effects which may be important in age-related skin homeostasis, and which would avoid systemic adverse effects related to estrogen. We report that systemic DHEA levels are strongly associated with protection against chronic venous ulceration in humans. DHEA accelerated impaired healing in an impaired healing model (mice rendered hypogonadal) associated with increased matrix deposition and dampens the exaggerated inflammatory response. Such effects were mediated by local conversion of DHEA to estrogen, acting through the estrogen receptor, and vitro studies suggest a direct effect on specific pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via mitogen activated kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase pathways. In addition, we show that local injection of DHEA accelerates impaired healing in an ageing mouse colony. We suggest that exogenous application of DHEA accelerates impaired wound repair, results which may be applicable to the prophylaxis and treatment of human impaired wound healing states.

J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Nov;125(5):1053-62

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and aging: contribution of the DHEAge Study to a sociobiomedical issue.

The secretion and the blood levels of the adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) decrease profoundly with age, and the question is posed whether administration of the steroid to compensate for the decline counteracts defects associated with aging. The commercial availability of DHEA outside the regular pharmaceutical-medical network in the United States creates a real public health problem that may be resolved only by appropriate long-term clinical trials in elderly men and women. Two hundred and eighty healthy individuals (women and men 60-79 years old) were given DHEA, 50 mg, or placebo, orally, daily for a year in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. No potentially harmful accumulation of DHEAS and active steroids was recorded. Besides the reestablishment of a “young” concentration of DHEAS, a small increase of testosterone and estradiol was noted, particularly in women, and may be involved in the significantly demonstrated physiological-clinical manifestations here reported. Bone turnover improved selectively in women >70 years old, as assessed by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique and the decrease of osteoclastic activity. A significant increase in most libido parameters was also found in these older women. Improvement of the skin status was observed, particularly in women, in terms of hydration, epidermal thickness, sebum production, and pigmentation. A number of biological indices confirmed the lack of harmful consequences of this 50 mg/day DHEA administration over one year, also indicating that this kind of replacement therapy normalized some effects of aging, but does not create “supermen/women” (doping).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4279-84

Psychological approach to different skin diseases: life events and tendency to complain.

BACKGROUND: For nearly two decades, dermatology has associated with psychology to find a better way to care for dermatology conditions. A scientific trend called psychosomatics is creating a link between dermatology and psychology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to examine two concepts closely linked to psychodermatology (life events and tendency to complain) and to emphasize the difference between factors playing a role in the onset of certain skin diseases (psoriasis, alopecia areata, benign tumors, eczema). RESULTS: We found that psoriasis patients have a greater tendency to complain than people with the other disease. This point to the importance of taking emotions into account when studying psoriasis. We also found that life events play a role in the onset of psoriasis and alopecia areata. Moreover, these events were anterior by more than 12 months in alopecia patients. CONCLUSION: We propose exploring emotions in psoriasis patients and life events over the prior year in alopecia areata patients.

Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Jan;128(1):21-4

Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress.

Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Hindu system of medicine, as a rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs reputed to promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors, revitalise the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. These attributes are remarkably similar to the properties ascribed to adaptogens like Panax ginseng (PG) in contemporary medicine. As such, the adaptogenic activity of a standardised extract of WS roots was investigated against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered once daily for 21 days to adult male Wistar rats. CS induced significant hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, increase in plasma corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations, male sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficits, immunosuppression and mental depression. These CS induced perturbations were attenuated by WS (25 and 50 mg/kg po) and by PG (100 mg/kg po), administered 1 h before footshock for 21 days. The results indicate that WS, like PG, has significant antistress adaptogenic activity, confirming the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):547-55

Central role of Ferrous/Ferric iron in the ultraviolet B irradiation-mediated signaling pathway leading to increased interstitial collagenase (matrix-degrading metalloprotease (MMP)-1) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) mRNA levels in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important second messengers for the induction of several genes in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation has recently been shown to generate lipid peroxidation products and hydroxyl radicals (HO.) with detrimental long term effects like cancer formation and premature aging of the skin. Here, we addressed the question of whether ferric/ferrous iron via the generation of ROS may mediate the UVB response, finally leading to connective tissue degradation, a hallmark in carcinogenesis and aging. Therefore, we studied the involvement of iron and ROS in the modulation of Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) activity, c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels, key signaling steps in the transcriptional control of matrix-degrading metalloprotease (MMP)-1/interstitial collagenase and MMP-3/stromelysin-1 after UVB irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. The iron-driven generation of lipid peroxides and hydroxyl radicals were identified as early events in the downstream signaling pathway of the UVB response leading to a 15-fold increase in JNK2 activity, a 3.5-fold increase in c-jun, to a 6-fold increase in MMP-1, and a 3.8-fold increase in MMP-3 mRNA levels, while virtually no alteration of c-fos mRNA levels were observed. Diminished generation of reactive oxygen species resulted in a significant reduction of JNK2 activity, c-jun, MMP-1, and MMP-3 mRNA levels after UVB irradiation compared with UVB-irradiated cells. Collectively, we have identified the iron-driven Fenton reaction and lipid peroxidation as possible central mechanisms underlying signal transduction of the UVB response.

J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 27;273(9):5279-87

Reactive oxygen species contribute to epidermal hyaluronan catabolism in human skin organ culture.

Hyaluronan (HA) is produced by keratinocytes in human skin organ culture, and degraded locally in epidermis by an unknown metabolic route. The present work tested whether reactive oxygen species (ROS), spontaneously produced in the tissue, could contribute to HA catabolism in epidermis. Epidermal HA was endogenously labeled with 3H-glucosamine for 24 h, then chased for 24 h in the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase to reduce the concentration of ROS. In control cultures, 35% of labeled HA was degraded during the 24 h chase while the corresponding figures in the presence of SOD and catalase were 19% and 23%, respectively (p < 0.05). Methionine, a quencher of hypochlorous acid, did not significantly inhibit the degradation. In additional experiments, the iron and copper chelator Detapac was even more effective, reducing the degradation to 8-9%, and suggesting that the ROS responsible for the degradation were produced in the Fenton reaction. Dermal HA, and proteoglycans in both epidermis and dermis were not influenced by the treatments, indicating that the inhibition by SOD, catalase and Detapac on epidermal HA catabolism was specific. It is suggested that endogenous ROS is involved in the catabolism human epidermal HA.

Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;23(7):996-1001

Clinical potential of advanced glycation end-product inhibitors in diabetes mellitus.

Non-enzymatic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) is to some extent a physiologic consequence of tissue aging. On the other hand, circulating AGE and tissue deposits mark the course of diabetes mellitus as well as a variety of other vascular or degenerative diseases. AGE generation is paralleled by oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation within target tissue, with features of inflammation through the involvement of monocytes/macrophages expressing receptors for glycated macromolecules. Over the past 15 years, a wealth of data concerning the pharmacology of AGE have been gathered through animal and human investigations, targeting their likely contribution to the progression of diabetic and non-diabetic vascular damage. Several agents have been shown to interfere with the formation of AGE or AGE precursors, bind to tissue receptors, or promote breakdown of deposits. The first and most studied inhibitor, aminoguanidine, has shown extensive beneficial effects in experimental models of diabetic vascular damage, recently entering phase I-III clinical investigation. Newer anti-AGE agents include pyridoxamine and the so-called ‘amadorins’, cross-link breakers, AGE binders and receptor antagonists.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2003;3(5):315-20

An in vitro approach to the chronological aging of skin by glycation of the collagen: the biological effect of glycation on the reconstructed skin model.

Glycation is a slow, nonenzymatic reaction that takes place between free amino groups in proteins primarily from lysine and a reducing sugar such as glucose or ribose. In skin, this reaction creates new residues or formations of cross-links (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. The formation of these bridges between dermal molecules is supposed to be responsible for loss of elasticity or other properties of the dermis observed during aging. Glycation may therefore play an important role in chronologic aging. In order to examine this hypothesis, we have developed a reconstructed skin model made of a modified dermal compartment that is a fibroblast-contracted collagen lattice prepared with preglycated collagen. The presence of AGEs (glycoxidation products) in the skin equivalents was evidenced using specific antibodies against carboxymethyllysine (CML). Several changes were observed after collagen glycation: (1) fibroblast shape and distribution (vimentin staining) were modified; (2) extracellular matrix molecules and the dermal-epidermal junction zone seemed to be enhanced (procollagen I and III, collagen IV and VII stainings); (3) stainings for beta1 and alpha6 integrins were also increased in the epidermal cell layer; and (4) collagenase activity was increased. To verify the biological effect of glycation, we used the well-known glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine. After aminoguanidine treatment, we found a low CML amount and decreased distribution of markers previously overexpressed in glycated skin constructs. These in vitro findings were at least in part related to aging in vivo and demonstrate an actual effect of glycation in skin aging.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:529-32

Novel inhibitors of glycation and AGE formation.

Accelerated formation of advanced glycation/lipoxidation and endproducts (AGEs/ALEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications. Several natural and synthetic compounds have been proposed and tested as inhibitors of AGE/ALE formation. We have previously reported the therapeutic effects of several new AGE/ALE inhibitors on the prevention of nephropathy and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of a compound, LR-90, on the progression of renal disease and its effects on AGE and receptor for AGE (RAGE) protein expression on the kidneys of diabetic STZ-rats. Diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with or without LR-90 (0, 5, 20, 25, and 50 mg/l of drinking water). After 32 weeks, body weight, glycemic status, renal function, and plasma lipids were measured. Kidney histopathology and AGE/ALE accumulation and RAGE protein expression in tissues were also determined. In vitro studies were also performed to determine the possible mechanism of action of LR-90 in inhibiting AGE formation and AGE-protein cross-linking. LR-90 protected the diabetic kidneys by inhibiting the increase in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and ameliorated hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats in a concentration-dependent fashion without any effects on hyperglycemia. LR-90 treatment also reduced kidney AGE/ALE accumulation and RAGE protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro, LR-90 exhibited general antioxidant properties by inhibiting metal-catalyzed reactions and reactive oxygen species (OH radical) and reactive carbonyl species (methlyglyoxal, glyoxal) generations without any effect on pyridoxal 5’ phosphate. The compound also prevents AGE-protein cross-linking reactions. These findings demonstrate the bioefficacy of LR-90 in treating nephropathy and hyperlipidemia in diabetic animals by inhibiting AGE accumulation, RAGE protein expression, and protein oxidation in the diabetic kidney. Additionally, our study suggests that LR-90 may be useful also to delay the onset and progression of diabetic atherosclerosis as the compound can inhibit the expression of RAGE and inflammation-related pathology, as well as prevent lipid peroxidation reactions.

Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;48(2-3):147-57

Inhibition of crystallin ascorbylation by nucleophilic compounds in the hSVCT2 mouse model of lenticular aging.

PURPOSE: Senile cataracts are associated with oxidation, fragmentation, cross-linking, insolubilization, and yellow pigmentation of lens crystallins. This process is partially explained by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) from ascorbic acid (ASA), as the authors unequivocally demonstrated in an hSVCT2 transgenic mouse. The authors present the first pharmacologic intervention study against ascorbylation in these mice. METHODS: Five groups of mice from 2 to 9 months of age (10 mice/group) were fed a diet containing 0.1% (wt/wt) aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, penicillamine, and nucleophilic compounds NC-I and NC-II. AGEs were determined in crystallin digests using high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lens protein extract was incubated in vitro with ASA or dehydroascorbic acid. RESULTS: The ASA level increased approximately 10-fold in all groups and was unaffected by treatment. AGEs were increased several-fold in transgenic compared with control lenses. Body weight, food intake, lenticular glutathione, and glycated lysine level were unaltered. In vitro, all compounds inhibited AGE formation. In vivo, NC-I and NC-II significantly decreased protein fluorescence at lambda(ex)335/(em)385 (P = 0.045, P = 0.017, respectively) and lambda(ex)370/(em)440 (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Other inhibitors had no effect. After 7 months, only NC-I and NC-II induced a 50% reduction in pentosidine (P = NS for NC-I; P = 0.035 for NC-II). NC-I also decreased carboxymethyllysine (P = 0.032) and carboxyethyllysine (P = NS). Fluorescent cross-link K2P was decreased by NC-I, NC-II, aminoguanidine, and pyridoxamine (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologically blocking protein ascorbylation with absorbable guanidino compounds is feasible and may represent a new strategy for the delay of age-related nuclear sclerosis of the lens.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Nov;49(11):4945-52

Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti-AGE agents.

Carbonyls generated by autoxidation of carbohydrates or lipid peroxidation have been implicated in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in tissues adversely affected by diabetes complications. Tissue AGE and associated pathology have been decreased by vitamin B(1)/B(6) in trials involving diabetic animal models. To understand the molecular cytoprotective mechanisms involved, the effects of B(1)/B(6) vitamers against cytotoxicity induced by AGE/advanced lipid end product (ALE) carbonyl precursors (glyoxal/acrolein) have been compared to cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress (hydroperoxide) or mitochondrial toxins (cyanide/copper). Thiamin was found to be best at preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress and mitochondrial toxins but not oxidative stress cell death suggesting that thiamin pyrophosphate restored pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases inhibited by mitochondrial toxicity. However, B(6) vitamers were most effective at preventing oxidative stress or lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity suggesting that pyridoxal or pyridoxal phosphate were antioxidants and/or Fe/Cu chelators. A therapeutic vitamin cocktail could provide maximal prevention against carbonyl stress toxicity associated with diabetic complications.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Mar;52(3):379-85

Renoprotective effects of the AGE-inhibitor pyridoxamine in experimental chronic allograft nephropathy in rats.

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The AGE formation inhibitor pyridoxamine (PM) is renoprotective in DN and in normoglycaemic obese Zucker rats. In chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), renal AGE accumulation occurs as well. METHODS: To investigate whether inhibition of AGE formation is renoprotective in CAN, we studied the Fisher 344 to Lewis (F-L) allograft rat model of experimental CAN. Fisher to Fisher (F-F) isografts served as controls. Proteinuria, renal function and renal histology of untreated transplanted rats (F-L n = 8, F-F n = 8) were compared to rats receiving PM 2 g/l in drinking water for 20 weeks starting at transplantation (F-L n = 5, F-F n = 10). All rats received cyclosporin A (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days after transplantation to prevent early acute rejection. RESULTS: Compared to untreated allografts, PM significantly decreased proteinuria (76 +/- 18 vs 29 +/- 3 mg/day), serum creatinine (130 +/- 12 vs 98 +/- 5 micromol/l), focal glomerulosclerosis (116 +/- 27 vs 16 +/- 5 AU), glomerular macrophage influx (5.6 +/- 0.6 vs 3.3 +/- 1.0), interstitial fibrosis (132 +/- 24 vs 76 +/- 2 AU) and interstitial macrophage influx (47.0 +/- 8.7 vs 15.4 +/- 5.0. Moreover, PM significantly ameliorated tubular accumulation of pentosidine, compared to untreated allografts (2.5 +/- 0.6 vs 0.3 +/- 0.3, all p < 0.05). In the isograft controls, these values did not differ between untreated and PM treated rats. CONCLUSION: PM exerts renoprotective effects and decreases renal pentosidine accumulation in experimental CAN, suggesting a detrimental role for renal AGE accumulation in the pathogenesis of renal damage in this non-diabetic model. These results indicate that inhibition of AGE formation might be a useful adjunct therapy to attenuate CAN.

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Feb;23(2):518-24

Could oxidative stress associate with age products in cataractogenesis?

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been reported to contribute to aging and cataract formation in the lens. The aim was to determine the association of oxidative stress with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in elderly diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cataract. METHODS: In the present study, malondialdehyde, vitamin E, serum AGEs, and glycemic control were investigated. The study included 156 subjects. Out of them, 30 were normal elderly subjects, 31 were elderly diabetic patients without cataract, 33 were elderly diabetic patients with cataract, 32 were elderly non-diabetic with cataract, and 30 were normal young subjects. The patients were selected on clinical grounds from Eye Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: Positive significant correlation was observed between s-AGEs and malondialdehyde in elderly diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cataract. Negative significant correlation was observed between s-AGEs and vitamin E in elderly diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cataract. However, the malondialdehyde and serum AGEs were found to be significantly increased (p < 0.001) in elderly diabetic and non-diabetic patients with and without cataract compared with elderly control subjects. In contrast to all four senile groups, the serum AGEs was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in young control subjects. Serum vitamin E was found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in elderly diabetic patients with and without cataract compared with elderly control subjects. Fasting blood glucose, HbA(1C) and serum fructosamine levels were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in elderly diabetic patients with and without cataract compared with non-diabetic elderly patients with cataract and elderly control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that increased AGEs were associated with oxidative stress in the elderly groups. AGE, as a result of oxidative stress, might have a role in cataract formation, which, in diabetic patients, occurs vigorously as compared with non-diabetic cataract patients.

Curr Eye Res. 2008 Aug;33(8):669-75

DNA damage during glycation of lysine by methylglyoxal: assessment of vitamins in preventing damage.

Amino acids react with methylglyoxal to form advanced glycation end products. This reaction is known to produce free radicals. In this study, cleavage to plasmid DNA was induced by the glycation of lysine with methylglyoxal in the presence of iron(III). This system was found to produce superoxide as well as hydroxyl radicals. The abilities of various vitamins to prevent damage to plasmid DNA were evaluated. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate showed maximum protection, while pyridoxamine showed no protection. The protective abilities could be directly correlated to inhibition of production of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate exhibited low radical scavenging ability as evaluated by its TEAC, but showed maximum protection probably by interfering in free radical production. Pyridoxamine did not inhibit free radical production. Thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate, both showed protective effects albeit to different extents. Tetrahydrofolic acid showed better antioxidant activity than folic acid but was found to damage DNA by itself probably by superoxide generation.

Amino Acids. 2007 Nov;33(4):615-21

Aminophospholipid glycation and its inhibitor screening system: a new role of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate as the inhibitor.

Peroxidized phospholipid-mediated cytotoxity is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases [i.e., the abnormal increase of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) found in the plasma of type 2 diabetic patients]. The PCOOH accumulation may relate to Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine (deoxy-D-fructosyl PE, or Amadori-PE), because Amadori-PE causes oxidative stress. However, lipid glycation inhibitor has not been discovered yet because of the lack of a lipid glycation model useful for inhibitor screening. We optimized and developed a lipid glycation model considering various reaction conditions (glucose concentration, temperature, buffer type, and pH) between PE and glucose. Using the developed model, various protein glycation inhibitors (aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, and carnosine), antioxidants (ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, quercetin, and rutin), and other food compounds (L-lysine, L-cysteine, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate) were evaluated for their antiglycative properties. Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate and pyridoxal (vitamin B(6) derivatives) were the most effective antiglycative compounds. These pyridoxals could easily be condensed with PE before the glucose/PE reaction occurred. Because PE-pyridoxal 5’-phosphate adduct was detectable in human red blood cells and the increased plasma Amadori-PE concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was decreased by dietary supplementation of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, it is likely that pyridoxal 5’-phosphate acts as a lipid glycation inhibitor in vivo, which possibly contributes to diabetes prevention.

J Lipid Res. 2006 May;47(5):964-74

Availability of vitamin B6 and pantothenate in an average American diet in man.

The availability of vitamin B6 and pantothenate in an average American diet was assessed healthy male volunteers. The subjects received two types of diets, both nutritionally equivalent to the average American diet: period 1 (35 days), semipurified formula diet (low in both vitamins) with daily supplements of 1.1 mg pyridoxine and 8.2 mg pantothenate; period 2 (35 days), natural food sources, providing 2.3 mg vitamin B6 and 11.5 mg pantothenate/day; period 3 (21 days), formula diet, providing 2.7 mg pyridoxine and 8.2 mg pantothenate/day. Daily protein intake was 96 g throughout the study. Vitamins in food and urine samples were determined microbiologically and plasma pyridoxal phosphate by a tyrosine apodecarboxylase radioassay method. Compared to the availability of the pure vitamins as 100%, the availability of vitamin B6 ranged from 61 to 81% with a mean of 71% using plasma pyridoxal phosphate data, and ranged from 73 to 92% with a mean of 79% according to urinary vitamin B6 data. Availability of pantothenate ranged from 40 to 61% with a mean of 50%, according to urinary pantothenate data. The average American diet used in our study contained 1.7 and 5.8 mg/day of available vitamin B6 and pantothenate, respectively.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Jul;34(7):1328-37

Effects of pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (MC-1) in patients undergoing high-risk coronary artery bypass surgery: results of the MEND-CABG randomized study.

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery remains associated with significant postoperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. MC-1 (pyridoxal-5’-phosphate monohydrate) inhibits purinergic receptors and intracellular influx of Ca2+, thereby reducing cellular injury during experimental ischemia and reperfusion. The MEND-CABG trial tested the hypothesis that MC-1 reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass graft. METHODS: In a phase 2, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 901 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and at high risk for subsequent cardiac or neurologic complications were randomly assigned to receive oral MC-1 (250 mg or 750 mg/d once daily) or placebo beginning 3 to 10 hours prior to surgery and continued to postoperative day 30. RESULTS: At 30 days, MC-1 250 mg (compared with placebo) reduced the composite of death, nonfatal cerebral infarction, and nonfatal myocardial infarction by 14.0% (P = .3124) with peak creatinine kinase-myocardial band > or =50 ng/mL (prespecified primary end point); 32.3% (P = .0349) with peak creatinine kinase-myocardial band > or =70 ng/mL; and 37.2% (P = .0283) with peak creatinine kinase-myocardial band > or =100 ng/mL. Myocardial infarctions with peak creatinine kinase-myocardial band> or =100 ng/mL were reduced by 47.2% in the MC-1 250-mg group versus placebo (P = .0083). Greater efficacy was demonstrated with 250 mg than with the 750-mg dose of MC-1. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft, treatment with MC-1 did not significantly affect the prespecified primary end point but was associated with a significant reduction in perioperative myocardial infarction with creatinine kinase-myocardial band > or =100 ng/mL. A larger, well-powered trial is needed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MC-1.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Jun;133(6):1604-11

Protective effect of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (MC-1) on perioperative myocardial infarction is independent of aortic cross clamp time: results from the MEND-CABG trial.

AIM: Aortic cross-clamp time remains a significant marker of mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (MC-1), blocking purinergic receptors and intracellular influx of calcium, was shown to decrease the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction in the prospective, randomized, double-blinded MC-1 to Eliminate Necrosis and Damage in CABG (MEND-CABG) clinical trial. METHODS: We studied the relationship between treatment with MC-1 and aortic cross-clamping relative to the incidence of cardiovascular (CV) death and myocardial infarction (MI) in the trial that enrolled 901 high-risk patients undergoing CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo, MC-1 250 mg/day or MC-1 750 mg/day starting 3-10 h before CABG and continued for 30 days after surgery. Serial creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) determinations, ECGs and clinical evaluations were performed. RESULTS: Cross-clamping time increased the event rate of death and MI with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.67 (1.17-2.37, P=0.0044). Treatment with MC-1 decreased the rate of events (P=0.0073) with odds ratios of 0.52 (0.31-0.88 for MC-1 250 mg/day versus placebo) and 0.48 (0.29-0.82 for MC-1 750 mg/day versus placebo). There was no interaction between cross-clamp time and treatment (P=0.61) on the occurrence of the combined endpoint. CONCLUSION: MC-1 decreased the incidence of CV death and MI (CK-MB >or=100 ng/mL) during the first 90 days after CABG in the MEND-CABG trial. Although longer aortic clamping time increased the risk of cardiovascular events, the protective effect of MC-1 was independent of ischemic time during CABG.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2008 Apr;49(2):249-53

Pyridoxal phosphate and hepatocyte growth factor prevent dialysate-induced peritoneal damage.

Glucose-based peritoneal dialysate (PD) is responsible for increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the peritoneum of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP), a derivative of vitamin B(6), protects proteins from glycation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) heals damaged tissues in a reciprocal manner against TGF-beta1. First, with the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whether PLP traps 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG), a major glucose degradation product in PD, was determined. Then, whether rat peritoneal tissue damages induced by intraperitoneal administration of glucose-based PD is ameliorated by PLP or HGF was examined. In vitro incubation with PLP markedly decreased concentration of 3DG in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the 3DG-trapping effect of PLP. The peritoneum of PD-treated rats was significantly thickened compared with that of physiologic saline-treated rats. Both PLP and HGF prevented the thickening of rat peritoneum induced by PD and ameliorated accumulation of AGE and expression of TGF-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type 1 collagen and a number of blood vessels. Furthermore, expression of HGF was significantly increased in the peritoneum of PLP-treated rats compared with that of PD-treated rats. In conclusion, PLP shows 3DG-trapping effect. PLP and HGF prevented peritoneal thickening; accumulation of AGE; expression of TGF-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type 1 collagen; and neoangiogenesis in rat peritoneum induced by PD.

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Jan;16(1):144-50

Pyridoxamine protects proteins from functional damage by 3-deoxyglucosone: mechanism of action of pyridoxamine.

Pyridoxamine (PM) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The therapeutic effect of PM has been demonstrated in multiple animal models of diabetes and in phase II clinical trials. However, the mechanism of PM therapeutic action is poorly understood. One potential mechanism is scavenging of pathogenic reactive carbonyl species (RCS) found to be elevated in diabetes. We have suggested previously that the pathogenicity of RCS methylglyoxal (MGO) may be due to modification of critical arginine residues in matrix proteins and interference with renal cell-matrix interactions. We have also shown that this MGO effect can be inhibited by PM (Pedchenko et al. (2005) Diabetes 54, 2952-2960). These findings raised the questions of whether the effect is specific to MGO, whether other structurally different physiological RCS can act via the same mechanism, and whether their action is amenable to PM protection. In the present study, we have shown that the important physiological RCS 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) can damage protein functionality, including the ability of collagen IV to interact with glomerular mesangial cells. We have also demonstrated that PM can protect against 3-DG-induced protein damage via a novel mechanism that includes transient adduction of 3-DG by PM followed by irreversible PM-mediated oxidative cleavage of 3-DG. Our results suggest that, in diabetic nephropathy, the therapeutic effect of PM is achieved, in part, via protection of renal cell-matrix interactions from damage by a variety of RCS. Our data emphasize the potential importance of the contribution by 3-DG, along with other more reactive RCS, to this pathogenic mechanism.

Biochemistry. 2008 Jan 22;47(3):997-1006

A post-Amadori inhibitor pyridoxamine also inhibits chemical modification of proteins by scavenging carbonyl intermediates of carbohydrate and lipid degradation.

Reactive carbonyl compounds are formed during autoxidation of carbohydrates and peroxidation of lipids. These compounds are intermediates in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALE) in tissue proteins during aging and in chronic disease. We studied the reaction of carbonyl compounds glyoxal (GO) and glycolaldehyde (GLA) with pyridoxamine (PM), a potent post-Amadori inhibitor of AGE formation in vitro and of development of renal and retinal pathology in diabetic animals. PM reacted rapidly with GO and GLA in neutral, aqueous buffer, forming a Schiff base intermediate that cyclized to a hemiaminal adduct by intramolecular reaction with the phenolic hydroxyl group of PM. This bicyclic intermediate dimerized to form a five-ring compound with a central piperazine ring, which was characterized by electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, NMR, and x-ray crystallography. PM also inhibited the modification of lysine residues and loss of enzymatic activity of RNase in the presence of GO and GLA and inhibited formation of the AGE/ALE N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine during reaction of GO and GLA with bovine serum albumin. Our data suggest that the AGE/ALE inhibitory activity and the therapeutic effects of PM observed in diabetic animal models depend, at least in part, on its ability to trap reactive carbonyl intermediates in AGE/ALE formation, thereby inhibiting the chemical modification of tissue proteins.

J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3397-403

Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (<150 pmol/L) and 24 had hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p <0.05) and reduced tHcy concentration (18.0 to 13.0 micromol/L, p <0.05) within first 2 weeks, both of which remained stable for the next 4 weeks. Plasma vitamin B12 and tHcy concentrations did not change in those who did not receive vitamin B12, and there was no change in plasma folate concentration in any of the groups. Blood haemoglobin concentration increased marginally within first two weeks in those women who received vitamin B12 (by 3 g/L, p <0.05) and the number of women with macrocytosis decreased from 2 to zero. There was no change in vibration sensory threshold during the period of the study. High-dose per oral vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced plasma tHcy within 2 weeks but did not achieve normal plasma tHcy concentration even after 6 weeks. People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(1):103-9

Plasma total homocysteine level and bone mineral density: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study.

BACKGROUND: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with hip fracture but not directly with bone mineral density (BMD). We examined the association of hip BMD with levels of plasma tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C—>T and 1298A—>C polymorphisms. METHODS: Bone mineral density was measured between 1997 and 2000 in 2,268 men and 3,070 women, aged 47 to 50 and 71 to 75 years, from the Hordaland Homocysteine Study cohort. Low BMD was defined as BMD in the lowest quintile for each sex and age group. Linear, logistic, and generalized additive regression models were used. RESULTS: Plasma levels of tHcy were inversely related to BMD among middle-aged and elderly women (P<.001) but not among men. The multiple adjusted odds ratio for low BMD among subjects with high (>or=15 micromol/L [>or=2.02 mg/L]) compared with low (<9 micromol/L [<1.22 mg/L]) tHcy level was 1.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.75) for women and was not significant for men. Additional adjustments for plasma folate level or intake of calcium and vitamin D did not substantially alter the results. Plasma folate level was associated with BMD in women only. We observed no association between BMD and vitamin B12 level or the MTHFR polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated tHcy and low folate levels were associated with reduced BMD in women but not in men. These findings suggest that tHcy may be a potential modifiable risk factor for osteoporosis in women.

Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jan 9;166(1):88-94

Chronic kidney disease, prevalence of premature cardiovascular disease, and relationship to short-term mortality.

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk state, particularly in the elderly, and has been defined by levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of kidney damage. The relationship between CKD and CVD in younger and middle-aged adults has not been fully explored. METHODS: Community volunteers completed surveys regarding past medical events and underwent blood pressure and laboratory testing. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR <60 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) or urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) > or =30 mg/g. Premature CVD was defined as self-reported myocardial infarction or stroke at <55 years of age in men and <65 years of age in women. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to national data systems. RESULTS: Of 31,417 participants, the mean age was 45.1 +/- 11.2 years, 75.5% were female, 36.8% African American, and 21.6% had diabetes. A total of 20.6% were found to have CKD, with the ACR and eGFR being the dominant positive screening tests in the younger and older age deciles, respectively. The prevalences of premature myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or death, and the composite were 5.3%, 4.7%, 0.8%, 9.2%, and 2.5%, 2.2%, 0.2%, 4.2% for those with and without CKD, respectively (P < .0001 for composite). Multivariable analysis found CKD (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27-1.63), age (OR 1.05 [per year], 95% CI 1.04-1.06), hypertension (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.40-1.84), diabetes (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.79-2.29), smoking (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.66-2.21), and less than high school education (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.37-1.85) as the most significantly associated factors for premature CVD or death (all P < .0001). Survival analysis found those with premature MI or stroke and CKD had the poorest short-term survival over the next 3 years after screening. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is an independent predictor of MI, stroke, and death among men and women younger than age 55 and 65 years, respectively. These data suggest the biologic changes that occur with kidney failure promote CVD at an accelerated rate that cannot be fully explained by conventional risk factors or older age. Screening for CKD by using both the ACR and eGFR can identify younger and middle-aged individuals at high risk for premature CVD and near-term death.

Am Heart J. 2008 Aug;156(2):277-83

Effects of pyridoxamine in combined phase 2 studies of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treat-ments of diabetic nephropathy (DN) delay the onset of end-stage renal disease. We report the results of safety/tolerability studies in patients with overt nephropathy and type 1/type 2 diabetes treated with pyridoxamine, a broad inhibitor of advanced glycation. METHODS: The two 24-week studies were multicenter Phase 2 trials in patients under standard-of-care. In PYR-206, patients were randomized 1:1 and had baseline serum creatinine (bSCr) <or=2.0 mg/dl. In PYR-205/207, randomization was 2:1 and bSCr was <or=2.0 for PYR-205 and >or=2.0 but <or=3.5 mg/dl for PYR-207. Treated patients (122 active, 90 placebo) received 50 mg pyridoxamine twice daily in PYR-206; PYR-205/207 patients were escalated to 250 mg twice daily. RESULTS: Adverse events were balanced between the groups (p = NS). Slight imbalances, mainly in the PYR-205/207 groups, were noted in deaths (from diverse causes, p = NS) and serious adverse events (p = 0.05) that were attributed to pre-existing conditions. In a merged data set, pyridoxamine significantly reduced the change from baseline in serum creatinine (p < 0.03). In patients similar to the RENAAL/IDNT studies (bSCr >or=1.3 mg/dl, type 2 diabetes), a treatment effect was observed on the rise in serum creatinine (p = 0.007). No differences in urinary albumin excretion were seen. Urinary TGF-beta1 also tended to decrease with pyridoxamine (p = 0.049) as did the CML and CEL AGEs. CONCLUSION: These data provide a foundation for further evaluation of this AGE inhibitor in DN.

Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(6):605-14

High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study.

Vitamin B6 plays an essential role in the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Normal homocysteine (Hcy) serum level is maintained by remethylation of Hcy to methionine by enzymes that require folic acid and vitamin B12 and by catabolism to cysteine by a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme. These findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that the vitamin B6 status may influence plasma Hcy levels. The aims of this preliminary study were (1) to determine whether a correlation exists between Hcy and vitamin B6 levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and (2) to investigate whether treatment with high-dose vitamin B6 may reduce Hcy levels in these patients. METHODS: In this preliminary study, we enrolled 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (7 men and 4 women; mean age +/- SD, 50 +/- 12 years) receiving high doses of vitamin B6 treatment (1200 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Blood samples for the assessment of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and Hcy serum levels were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Age was significantly positively correlated with Hcy levels at baseline (r = 0.392, P = 0.004). All other parameters, including diagnosis, disease duration, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate serum level, were not correlated with Hcy serum levels at baseline. After vitamin B6 treatment, Hcy serum levels significantly decreased (14.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, respectively, t = 2.679, P = 0.023); this decrease being statistically significant in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: High doses of vitamin B6 lead to a decrease in Hcy serum level in male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):13-7

AGES in brain ageing: AGE-inhibitors as neuroprotective and anti-dementia drugs?

In Alzheimer’s disease, age-related cellular changes such as compromised energy production and increased radical formation are worsened by the presence of AGEs as additional, AD specific stress factors. Intracellular AGEs (most likely derived from methylglyoxal) crosslink cytoskeletal proteins and render them insoluble. These aggregates inhibit cellular functions including transport processes and contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death. Extracellular AGEs, which accumulate in ageing tissue (but most prominently on long-lived protein deposits like the senile plaques) exert chronic oxidative stress on neurons. In addition, they activate glial cells to produce free radicals (superoxide and NO) and neurotoxic cytokines such as TNF-alpha. Drugs, which inhibit the formation of AGEs by specific chemical mechanisms (AGE-inhibitors), including aminoguanidine, carnosine, tenilsetam, OPB-9195 and pyridoxamine, attenuate the development of (AGE-mediated) diabetic complications. Assuming that ‘carbonyl stress’ contributes significantly to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, AGE-inhibitors might also become interesting novel therapeutic drugs for treatment of AD.

Biogerontology. 2001;2(1):19-34