Gout and Hyperuricemia
Dietary Approaches to Control Hyperuricemia and Reduce Gout Risk
Lifestyle can have a significant influence on the development of hyperuricemia and gout. Accumulated data from several large epidemiological studies suggest several possible modifications for significant reductions in gout risk56:
Exercise daily and reduce weight. Increased adiposity is associated with increased uric acid levels and gout risk.
Limit red meat intake. Beef, pork, and lamb are high-purine foods that can significantly increase gout risk.
Adjust fish intake to individual needs. Carefully balance the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids with the increased gout risk; or consider taking an omega-3 supplement. High quality fish oil supplements are highly purified and the purine content in these oils is either undetectable, or present in trace amounts that pose no risk of raising gout levels.
Drink skim milk or consume other low-fat dairy products. Dairy consumption is inversely associated with gout risk.
Consume vegetable protein, nuts, and legumes. Nuts and legumes are good sources of non-uricemic protein; legumes and vegetables (even those high in purines) are not associated with gout risk.
Reduce alcohol intake. Moderate alcohol consumption has cardiovascular benefits, but beer and spirits significantly increase gout risk. Red wine, on the other hand, appears not to increase gout risk.
Limit intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fructose in these beverages might increase hyperuricemia and gout risk. Although fruits also contain fructose, it is usually present at lower levels and most have health benefits that justify their consumption.